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The Adaptation, Validation, Reliability Process of the Turkish Version Orientations to Happiness Scale

pp. 7-15  |  Published Online:   |  DOI: 10.12973/unibulletin.412.1

Hakan Saricam, Ayse Canatan


The purpose of this research is to adapt the Scale of Happiness Orientations, which was developed by Peterson, Park, and Seligman (2005), into Turkish and examine the psychometric properties of the scale. The participants of the research consist of 489 students. The psychometric properties of the scale was examined with test methods; linguistic equivalence, descriptive factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, criterion-related validity, internal consistency, and test-retest. For criterion-related validity (concurrent validity), the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire-Short Form is used. Articles resulting from the descriptive factor analysis for structural validity of scale were summed into three factors (life of meaning, life of pleasure, life of engagement) in accordance with the original form. Confirmatory factor analysis conducted yielded the value of three-factor fit indexes of 18 items: (χ2/df=1.94, RMSEA= .059, CFI= .96, GFI= .95, IFI= .95, NFI= .96, RFI= .95 and SRMR= .044). Factor load of the scale ranges from .36 to .59. During criterion-validity analysis, between Scale of Happiness Orientations and the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire, positive strong relations were seen at the level of p<.01 significance level. Cronbach Alpha internal consistency coefficient was .88 for the life of meaning sub-scale, .84 for the life of pleasure sub-scale, and .81 for the life of engagement sub-scale. In addition, a corrected items total correlation ranges from .39 to .61. According to these results, it can be said that the scale is a valid and reliable assessment instrument for positive psychology, educational psychology, and other fields.

Keywords: happiness, happiness orientations, validation, reliability


The Impact of Solution-Focused Brief Group Psychological Counseling on University Students’ Burnout Levels

pp. 28-43  |  Published Online:   |  DOI: 10.12973/unibulletin.312.3

Azmi Bayram Ilbay, Ahmet Akin


This research was done to analyze the effects of Coping with Burnout Program, developed on the basis of Solution-Focused Brief Therapy on the burnout levels of university students. To select the subjects that would participate in the research, Maslach Burnout Inventory­­–Student Survey was applied on 461 university students from the University of Sakarya. As a result of pre-interviews, 24 students who had experienced student burnout voluntarily participated in a Coping with Burnout Program. The students were randomly appointed to one of the experimental and control groups. At this stage, a six-session Coping with Burnout Program developed by the researcher was applied on the students from the experimental group. No application was performed on the students from the control group. A 2x3 design (experimental/ control groups X pretest/ posttest/ follow up) was used in the research. The scores from the Maslach Burnout Inventory–Student Survey formed the dependent variable of the research, and the application of Coping with Burnout Program formed the independent variable of the research. The scale used in the research was applied on the groups as pretest two weeks before the sessions started, and as posttest two weeks after the sessions ended, and as follow-up two months after the posttest in order to determine the resistance of the experimental process. In the analysis of the data obtained through these processes, two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine whether or not there was a significant difference between groups and the survey. The data obtained through the research proved that the Coping with Burnout Program decreased the burnout levels of the students in the experimental group as were determined with the Maslach Burnout Inventory–Student Survey, and follow up tests showed that the situation remained the same. It was seen that there was no significant difference between the scores of the participants of the control group from pretest, posttest and follow up test. 

Keywords: solution-focused brief therapy, coping with burnout program, student burnout


A Scale Adaptation Study Related to the Examination of Adolescents' Levels of Educational Stress

pp. 44-55  |  Published Online:   |  DOI: 10.12973/unibulletin.312.4

Ismail Celik, Ahmet Akin, Hakan Saricam


The basic aim of this research is to adapt the Educational Stress Scale (Sun, Dunne, Hou, & Xu, 2011) to Turkish and to examine its psychometric properties. The second purpose of this study is to compare students’ educational stress levels according to gender and grades. The research was conducted on 558 high school students in Sakarya and Agri in Turkey. Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) measure of sampling adequacy was .81 and there was a significant result on Bartlett’s test of Sphericity χ2=3488.103 (p<.001, df=105). Factor loadings ranged from .41 to .91. Results of confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated that 16 items yielded five factors as original form and that the five-dimensional model was well fit (χ2= 123.49, df= 88 (χ2/df=1.40), RMSEA= .03, NFI= .97, CFI= .99, IFI= .99, RFI= .96, GFI= .95, SRMR= .041). Cronbach alpha internal consistency coefficient was found as .86 for whole scale, .87 for the sub-dimension of pressure from study, .93 for the sub-dimension of workload, .90 for the sub-dimension of worry about grades, .90 for the sub-dimension of self-expectation, and .91 for the sub-dimension of despondency. In the concurrent validity, significant relationship (r= .51) was found between the Educational Stress Scale and School Burnout Scale. Test-retest reliability coefficient was .67 for the whole scale. Corrected item-total correlations ranged from .40 to .57. Overall results demonstrated that the Educational Stress Scale can be deemed to be a valid and reliable instrument to be used in the field of psychology and education. Moreover, students’ educational stress levels changed statistically according to gender and grades. Results were discussed in light of the related literature.

Keywords: stress, educational stress, school burnout, scale


Comparison of Geography Self-Efficacy Levels of Students Taking Geography Course

pp. 19-27  |  Published Online:   |  DOI: 10.12973/unibulletin.312.2

Suleyman Hilmi Sahin


In today’s education world, the fact that students and teachers have high self-efficacy perception ensures that their education life is more efficient. This study aimed to investigate self-efficacy levels of student candidates who received geography education in Social Sciences Teaching and Geography Teaching at the Geography Departments of Faculties of Science and Arts toward geography learning areas in the curriculum. Geography self-efficacy scale and a demographic information form were applied to the participants. As data were not normally distributed, non-parametric Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to compare geography self-efficacy levels among the variables. Research findings revealed that male students’ geography self-efficacy levels were higher. In addition, a statistically significant difference was found between the geography self-efficacy levels in the different departments where geography education has been lectured, and these results are discussed in light of the relevant literature.

Keywords: geography, social sciences teaching, geography teaching, self-efficacy perception


The Role of Reading Skills on Reading Comprehension Ability of Turkish EFL Students

pp. 37-51  |  Published Online:   |  DOI: 10.12973/unibulletin.412.4

Ebru Kaya


Reading is a part of our daily lives. It is performed both for pleasure and information. Reading skills are important for the individuals since they foster comprehension in reading. If the students do not have knowledge of reading skills, they cannot be expected to be successful readers. Thus, they cannot achieve the level of comprehension required to pass exams in their own departments. For this reason, reading skills should be taught in universities for the students to be able to cope with comprehension problems. This case study aims to find out whether or not reading skills has a role on the reading comprehension ability of Turkish EFL students. This study is both a qualitative and a quantitative study which lasted for a duration of 14 weeks. Two groups were selected (experimental and control) among prep classes at Kahramanmaraş Sütçü Imam University. Both groups were administered a pre-test and questionnaire at the beginning of the study to find out if they were aware of reading skills. In addition, 10 students were chosen randomly for interview. During the study, reading skills were infused into the curriculum through designing lesson plans in accordance with the language content and topics for level C students, as determined by the Common European Language Framework. The lessons required the students to use reading skills before, during, and post reading. At the end of the study, the same questionnaire was re-administered. The students were given the post-test and then interviewed. The quantitative data were analyzed through descriptive statistics. The obtained data revealed that the students enhanced their comprehension ability provided that they were taught to use reading skills.

Keywords: reading skills, reading comprehension, Turkish EFL students


Effect of Argumentation on Prospective Science Teachers' Scientific Process Skills and Their Understanding of Nature of Scientific Knowledge in Chemistry Laboratory

pp. 7-18  |  Published Online:   |  DOI: 10.12973/unibulletin.312.1

Ali Riza Sekerci, Nurtac Canpolat


The aim of this research is to analyze the effect of Argumentation on prospective science teachers' scientific process skills and their understanding of the nature of scientific knowledge in the chemistry laboratory. In this study, non-equivalent pre-test post-test control group approach, which is one of the quasi-experimental methods, is used. The study group contains 91 college freshmen students studying in the Department of Science Education of the Kazim Karabekir Education Faculty, Ataturk University, which is located in the Eastern Anatolian Region of Turkey. Data of the study is collected through scientific process skill test (SPST) and the nature of scientific knowledge test (NSKT). Data from SPST and NSKT are analyzed through inferential statistics method. A statistically significant difference is found between experimental and control groups' SPS post-test mean scores (t(89)= 4.943; p= .000). A statistically significant difference is found between experimental and control groups' NSK post-test mean scores (t(89)= .819; p= .05). It is shown in this study that the argumentation contributes to the scientific process skills of the students, but does not have a significant influence on their understanding of the nature of scientific knowledge.

Keywords: argumentation, chemistry laboratory, scientific process skills, nature of the scientific knowledge


Second Language Acquisition of Syntactic Movement in English by Turkish Adult Learners

pp. 23-36  |  Published Online:   |  DOI: 10.12973/unibulletin.412.3

Reyhan Agcam, Mustafa Coban, Zeynep Karadeniz Cisdik


There has been much discussion on the involvement of Universal Grammar (UG) in Second Language Acquisition (SLA) process. Despite growing research in the field, few precise answers to the problem have been suggested so far. Hence, recent L2 studies within the generative framework have shifted from investigating this issue to determining whether or not interlanguage grammars exhibit natural language characteristics (Can, Kilimci & Altunkol, 2007). The present study aimed to investigate L2 acquisition of syntactic movement in English noun clauses by Turkish adult learners. Accordingly, L1 involvement in SLA was sought through examining the upper intermediate Turkish learners’ knowledge about the movement in question. The study addressed the questions of whether or not Turkish adult ESL learners have problems, stemming from L1 interference, with the construction of the syntactic movement in English noun clauses, and whether or not there is any order of acquisition between the noun clauses in subject position and object position along with various wh-words. The study reported related findings, and concluded with a few pedagogical implications for practice, and a couple of suggestions for further directions.

Keywords: second language acquisition, universal grammar, syntactic movement, noun clause


Interaction of Student Motivation with Contextual Approach and 5e Learning Cycle in Physics

pp. 16-22  |  Published Online:   |  DOI: 10.12973/unibulletin.412.2

Haki Pesman


In this study, it is aimed to investigate in what way students’ motivation in physics prior to the treatments of experimental study influences the effects on contextual approach and 5E learning cycle on their achievement. The data comes from a factorial-design-research from which the effects of context-based approach and 5E learning cycle on 11th grade students’ achievement in simple electric circuits in a physics class are explored. The Jouhnson-Neyman technique was used for testing the hypothesis of the study. The results are quite interesting. Students with high motivation in physics (above 2.81 out of 5.00) were observed to benefit more from the non-contextual physics instruction, while the students with low motivation in physics (below 1.85 out of 5.00) were observed to benefit more from the contextual physics instruction. Between these boundary values, effects of contextual and non-contextual physics instruction seem not to be different. For the interaction of motivation with 5E learning cycle, no significant interaction could be detected. That is to say, all the students with different levels of motivation in physics benefitted similarly from the 5E learning cycle. 

Keywords: motivation, contextual approach, student achievement, learning cycle, physics


Assigning Course Supervision to School Principals from Educational Supervisors: Effects on Teachers

pp. 52-63  |  Published Online:   |  DOI: 10.12973/unibulletin.412.5

Tuncay Yavuz Ozdemir


The inspectional structure of the National Education System in Turkey changed with a regulation which came into forced in 2015, which passed school principals the responsibility for teachers’ course control. The primary purpose of this study is to reveal teacher opinions on the new implementation which emerged from the change in the supervisory system. The study group consists of branch teachers for this study under the qualitative research method. Results indicate that supervision conducted by both supervisors and principals is not perfect. However, when considered generally, teachers find the supervision carried out by the principals to be positive. The results emphasize that there should be a standard for the supervisions conducted by principals and ethical codes should be set for objective/unbiased teacher supervision. It was also observed that course supervision competences of school principals are not at the desired levels; thus, school principals should be trained on supervision. 

Keywords: teacher supervision, principal, teacher opinions


An Alternative Educational System Based on the Opinions of Educational Stakeholders: Home Schools

pp. 56-69  |  Published Online:   |  DOI: 10.12973/unibulletin.312.5

Secil Eda Kartal, Ibrahim Kocabas


Schools, which enable children to socialize and adapt with the society, are obliged to undergo changes over time. With this respect, many alternative educational practices have been developed. Home schools, whose applicability has increased recently, are only one of these alternative educational practices. The main purpose of the implementation is to remove the bad habits acquired from schools and to enable cultural transmission. There are no comprehensive studies in Turkey on homeschooling. This study was conducted to determine how homeschooling is perceived and its applicability in Turkey. The study group consists of teachers, school administrators and educational inspectors working in secondary schools. A total of 23 focus group discussions were carried out with the participants and qualitative research method was used. The stakeholders were asked to state their opinions on the question “What do you think homeschooling is?” and then general information was given by the researcher. When the opinions are considered, there are differences among the stakeholders. After general information was given by the researcher, answers for the question “Is homeschooling applicable in Turkey? Why?” was sought. With this respect, the opinions were classified as positive, negative and suggestions for possible outcomes.

Keywords: alternative education, home schools, educational shareholders, school


Call for Papers

UNIBULLETIN is calling for submissions to the Vol. 6, Issue 2, 2017.

Authors are invited to submit papers from the broader fields of the social sciences and related disciplines in the international context. 

All submissions should be presented only in English. Manuscripts should be sent to the Editor-in-Chief via e-mail:

Submission Deadline: October 1, 2017.