The Adaptation, Validation, Reliability Process of the Turkish Version Orientations to Happiness Scale
pp. 7-15 | Published Online: December 2015 | DOI: 10.12973/unibulletin.412.1
Hakan Saricam, Ayse Canatan
The purpose of this research is to adapt the Scale of Happiness Orientations, which was developed by Peterson, Park, and Seligman (2005), into Turkish and examine the psychometric properties of the scale. The participants of the research consist of 489 students. The psychometric properties of the scale was examined with test methods; linguistic equivalence, descriptive factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, criterion-related validity, internal consistency, and test-retest. For criterion-related validity (concurrent validity), the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire-Short Form is used. Articles resulting from the descriptive factor analysis for structural validity of scale were summed into three factors (life of meaning, life of pleasure, life of engagement) in accordance with the original form. Confirmatory factor analysis conducted yielded the value of three-factor fit indexes of 18 items: (χ2/df=1.94, RMSEA= .059, CFI= .96, GFI= .95, IFI= .95, NFI= .96, RFI= .95 and SRMR= .044). Factor load of the scale ranges from .36 to .59. During criterion-validity analysis, between Scale of Happiness Orientations and the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire, positive strong relations were seen at the level of p<.01 significance level. Cronbach Alpha internal consistency coefficient was .88 for the life of meaning sub-scale, .84 for the life of pleasure sub-scale, and .81 for the life of engagement sub-scale. In addition, a corrected items total correlation ranges from .39 to .61. According to these results, it can be said that the scale is a valid and reliable assessment instrument for positive psychology, educational psychology, and other fields.
Keywords: happiness, happiness orientations, validation, reliabilityReferences
Akarsu, B. (1998). Felsefe Terimleri Sozlugu. Istanbul: Inkilap Yayinevi.
Akpinar, R. B. (2004). Duygusal yuz ifadelerini anlama becerisini gelistirmeye yonelik ornek bir egitim programıi. Uluslararası Insan Bilimleri Dergisi, 1, 1-10.
Brislin, R. W., Lanner, W. J., & Thorndike, R. M. (1973). Questionnaire wording and translation. In Cross cultural research methods (pp. 32-58). Chicago: John Willey & Sons, Inc.
Buyukozturk, S. (2002). Faktor analizi: Temel kavramlar ve olcek gelistirmede kullanimi. Kuram ve Uygulamada Egitim Yonetimi, 32, 470-483.
Buyukozturk, S. (2012). Veri analizi el kitabı. Ankara: PegemA.
Buyukozturk, S., Akgun, O., Kahveci, O., & Demirel, F. (2004). Gudulenme ve Ogrenme Stratejileri Olceginin Turkce formunun gecerlik ve guvenirlik calismasi. Kuram ve Uygulamada Egitim Bilimleri, 4(2), 207-239.
Capik, C. (2014). Gecerlik ve guvenirlik calismalarinda dogrulayici faktor analizinin kullanimi [Use of confirmatory factor analysis in validity and reliability studies]. Journal of Anatolia Nursing and Health Sciences, 17(3), 196-205.
Celik, I., Akin, A., & Saricam, H. (2014). A Scale Adaptation Study Related to the Examination of Adolescents' Levels of Educational Stress. Üniversitepark Bülten, 3(1-2), 44-55.
Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Cokluk, O., Sekercioglu, G., & Buyukozturk, Ş. (2012). Sosyal bilimler icin cok degiskenli SPSS ve LISREL uygulamalari. Ankara: PegemA Yayinlari.
Diener, E. (1984). Subjective well-being. Psychological Bulletin 95, 542-575.
Dogan, T., & Akinci Cotok, N. (2011). Adaptation of the Short Form of the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire into Turkish: A validity and reliability study. Turkish Psychological Counseling and Guidance Journal, 4(36), 165-172.
Erkus, A. (2012). Psikolojide Olcme ve Olcek Gelistirme-I. Ankara: PegemA Yayinlari.
Fordyce, M. W. (1983). A program to increase happiness: Further studies. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 30, 483-498.
Fromm, E. (1995). Sevme Sanatı, (Y. Salman, Trans.). Istanbul: Payel Yayinlari.
Goleman, D. (2006). Emotional intelligence: 10th anniversary edition; why it can matter more than IQ. New York: Bantam.
Graham, C. (2004). Does happiness pay? An exploration based on panel data from Russia. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 55, 319-342.
Graham, C., & Pettinato, S. (2002). Happiness and hardship: Opportunity and insecurity in new market economies. The Brookings Institution Press, Washington, DC.
Hills, P., & Argyle, M. (2002). The Oxford Happiness Questionnaire: A compact scale for the measurement of psychological well-being. Personality and Individual Differences, 33, 1073-1082.
Hu, L., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modelling, 6, 1-55.
Ilbay, A. B., & Akin, A. (2014). The Impact of Solution-Focused Brief Group Psychological Counseling on University Students’ Burnout Levels. Üniversitepark Bülten, 3(1-2), 28-43.
Izard, C. E. (2004). The psychology of emotions (Emotions, personality, and psychotherapy). New York: Plenum Press.
Lama, D. (2000). Mutluluk sanati, (G. Tokcan, Trans.). Istanbul: Klan Yayinlari.
Liu, X. S. (2013). Statistical power analysis for the social and behavioral sciences: Basic and advanced techniques. New York: Routledge.
Lyubomirsky, S. (2001). Why are some people happier than others? The role of cognitive and motivational processes in well-being. American Psychologist, 56, 239-249.
Lyubomirsky, S., Sheldon, K. M., & Schkade, D. (2005). Pursuing happiness: The architecture of sustainable change. Review of General Psychology, 9, 111-131.
Oatley, K. (1992). Best laid schemes: The psychology of emotions. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Ogurlu, U. (2015). Ostracism among Gifted Adolescents: A Preliminary Study in Turkey. Educational Process: International Journal, 4(1-2), 18-30.
Peterson, C., Park, N., & Seligman, M. E. (2005). Orientations to happiness and life satisfaction: The full life versus the empty life. Journal of Happiness Studies, 6, 25–41.
Russell, B. (2003). Mutluluk yolu [The Conquest of Happiness] (N. Ozyurek, Trans.). Istanbul: Varlık Yay.
Saricam, H. (2014). Belirsizliğe tahammülsüzlüğün mutluluğa etkisi. Kilis 7 Aralık Universitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 4(8), 1-12.
Saricam, H. (2015). Subjective happiness and hope. Universitas Psychologica, (14)2, 15-24.
Saricam, H., & Uysal, R. (2014). Mutluluk Yonelimleri Olceginin Turkce Formunun Psikometrik Ozellikleri. 3rd International Counseling and Education Conference Abstract Book, 26-28 May 2014, Istanbul, Turkey.
Saricam, H., & Sahin, S. H. (2015). The Relationship between the Environmental Awareness, Environmental Attitude, Curiosity and Exploration in Highly Gifted Students: Structural Equation Modelling. Educational Process: International Journal, 4(1-2), 7-17.
Shaver, P., Schwartz, J., Kirson, D., & O'Connor, C. (1987). Emotion knowledge - further exploration of a prototype approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52(6), 1061-1086.
Simsek, O. F. (2007). Yapisal esitlik modellemesine giris: Temel ilkeler ve lisrel uygulamalari. Ankara: Ekinoks Yayinlari.
Stein, N. L., Leventhal, B., & Trabasso, T. (Eds.) (1990). Psychological and biological approaches to emotion. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Sumer, N. (2000). Yapisal esitlik modelleri: Temel kavramlar ve ornek uygulamalar. Türk Psikoloji Yazıları, 3(6), 49-74.
Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2007). Using multivariate statistics. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
TDK (2011). Turkçe Sozluk. Ankara: TDK yay.
Topkaya, N. (2012). Yeniden evlenen aileler: Yaşanan sorunlar ve çözüm önerileri. Üniversitepark Bülten, 1(1).
Topkaya, N. (2013). Modern çağın yaygın hastalığı: Depresyon. Üniversitepark Bülten, 2(2).
Tkach, C., & Lyubomirsky, S. (2006). How do people pursue happiness? Relating personality, happiness increasing strategies, and well-being. Journal of Happiness Studies, 7(2), 183-225.
Veenhoven, R. (1997). Advances in understanding happiness. Published in French in: Revue Québécoise de Psychologie, 18, 29-32.
Yilmaz, V., & Celik, H. E. (2009). Lisrel ile Yapisal Esitlik Modellemesi-I: Temel Kavramlar, Uygulamalar, Programlama. Ankara: PegemA Yayinlari.
Call for Papers
UNIBULLETIN is calling for submissions to the Vol. 9, Issue 2, 2020.
Authors are invited to submit papers from the broader fields of the social sciences and related disciplines in the international context.
All submissions should be presented only in English. Manuscripts should be send to the Editor-in-Chief via e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org