Development of Teachers’ Structural Empowerment Scale (TSES): A Validity and Reliability Study
pp. 118-132 | Published Online: May 2017 | DOI: 10.22521/unibulletin.2017.61.10
Elif Iliman Puskulluoglu, Yahya Altinkurt
The purpose of this study is to develop a data collection tool in order to define the levels of teachers’ structural empowerment. The sample of the research consists of teachers of primary, secondary and high schools. For the construct validity, explanatory and confirmatory factor analyses are done. The five-factor structure, emerged as the result of explanatory factor analysis (EFA), is; Participatory Decision-Making Environment (DM), Accountable Environment (AE), Professional Development Supportive Environment (PD), Facilitative School Environment (FE), and Autonomy-Supportive Environment (AS). This five-factor structure accounts for 65.01% of the total variance. The scale is comprised of a five-point Likert type 30 items ranging from “1-completely disagree” to “5-completely agree”. The five-factor, 30 item structure emerged at the end of EFA, is also analyzed via confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), and the results show that the scale has good fit (χ2/sd= 2.93, RMSEA= .079, NFI= .96, NNFI= .97, CFI= .97, IFI= .97, RMR= .04, SRMR= .05). For the reliability of the scale, item total correlations, Cronbach’s Alpha internal consistency coefficients and item means of the upper and lower 27% groups are examined. Consequently, a psychometrically adequate, valid and reliable data collection tool is developed to assess teachers’ structural empowerment.
Keywords: structural empowerment scale, empowerment, teacherReferences
Altinkurt, Y., & Iliman-Puskulluoglu, E. (2016). Bilim tarihi, sosyoloji ve psikoloji paradigmalari baglaminda egitim yonetimi. In K. Yilmaz (Ed.), Elestirel egitim yonetimi yazıları, (pp. 1-33). Ankara: Pegem Akademi.
Altinkurt, Y., Turkkas-Anasız, B., & Ekinci, C. E. (2016). The relationship between structural and psychological empowerment of teachers and their organizational citizenship behaviors. Education and Science, 41(187), 79-96.
Altinkurt, Y., & Yilmaz, K (2013). Development of organizational power scale at schools: a reliability and validity study. E-International Journal of Educational Research, 4(4), 1-17.
Armstrong, K., & Laschinger, H. (2006). Structural empowerment, magnet hospital characteristics, and patient safety culture, making the link. Journal of Nursing Care Quality, 21(2), 124-132.
Arslantas, C. C., Ozcelik, O., & Pekdemir, I. (2007). Bir guclendirme olcegi onerisi: Calısanların demografik ozelliklerine göre farkliliklarin analizi. Istanbul Universitesi Isletme Fakultesi Isletme Iktisadi Enstitusu Yonetim Dergisi, 18(57), 3-12.
Balkar, B. (2015). Defining an empowering school culture (ESC): Teacher perception. Issues in Educational Research, 25(3), 205-226.
Bogler, R., & Nir, A. E. (2012). The importance of teachers’ perceived organizational support to job satisfaction: What’s empowerment got to do with it? Journal of Educational Administration, 50(3), 287-306.
Bogler, R., & Somech, A. (2004). Influence of teacher empowerment on teachers’ organizational commitment, professional commitment and organizational citizenship behavior in schools. Teaching and Teacher Education, 20, 277-289.
Buyukozturk, S. (2009). Sosyal bilimler icin veri analizi el kitabı. Ankara: Pegem Akademi.
Caudron, S. (1995). Create an empowering environment. Personnel Journal, 74(9), 28-36.
Conger, J. A., & Kanungo, R. N. (1988). The empowerment process: Integrating theory and practice. Academy of Management Review, 13(3), 471-482.
Erbay, E. O., & Turgut, T. (2015). The mediating effect of psychological empowerment on the relationship between structural empowerment and organizational identification. Marmara University Journal of Economic & Administrative Sciences, 37(2), 261-284.
Erkus, A. (2012). Psikolojide olcme ve olcek gelistirme-I, temel kavramlar ve islemler. Ankara: Pegem Akademi.
Gibson, C. H. (1990). A concept analysis of empowerment. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 16(3), 354-361.
Goyne, J., Padgett, D., Rowicki, M. A., & Triplitt, T. (1999). The journey to teacher empowerment. Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED434384.pdf.
Hooper, D., Coughlan, J., & Mullen, M. R. (2008). Structural Equation Modelling: Guidelines for Determining Model Fit. The Electronic Journal of Business Research Methods, 6(1), 53-60.
In’am, A. (2015). Mathematics teachers’ response towards teacher empowerment at junior high school in Indonesia. American Journal of Educational Research, 3(4), 439-445.
Joreskog, K. G., & Sorbom, D. (1993). LISREL 8: Structural equation modeling with the SIMPLIS command language. Lincolnwood: Scientific Software International Inc.
Kerse, G., & Karabey, C. N. (2014). The relationship between employee empowerment and individual's creativity perception: An application in banking industry. Akdeniz University Faculty of Economics & Administrative Sciences Faculty Journal, 14(29), 22-41.
Kimwarey, M. C, Chirure, H. N., & Omondi, M. (2014). Teacher empowerment in education practice: Strategies, constraints and suggestions. IOSR Journal of Research & Method in Education (IOSR-JRME), 4(2), 51-56.
Kline, R. B. (2005). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. London: Sage.
Kline, R. B. (2011). Principles and practice of structural equation modelling. New York: Guilford.
Laschinger, H. K. S., Finegan, J. E., Shamian, J., & Wilk, P. (2001). Impact of structural and psychological empowerment on job strain in nursing work settings: Expanding Kanter's model. Journal of Nursing Administration, 31(5), 260-272.
Laschinger, H. K. S., Finegan, J. E., Shamian, J., & Wilk, P. (2004). A longitudinal analysis of the impact of workplace empowerment on work satisfaction. Journal of Organizational Behaviour, 25, 527-545.
Meng, L., Liu, Y., Liu, H., Hu, Y., Yang, J., & Liu, J. (2015). Relationships among structural empowerment, psychological empowerment, intent to stay and burnout in nursing field in mainland China – based on a cross-sectional questionnaire research. International Journal of Nursing Practice, 21(3), 303-312.
Menon, S. T. (2001). Employee empowerment: An integrative psychological approach. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 50(1), 153-180.
Meyerson, S. L., & Kline, T. J. B. (2008). Psychological and environmental empowerment: Antecedents and consequences. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 29(5), 444-460.
Orgambidez-Ramosab, A., & Borrego-Ales, Y. (2014). Empowering employees: Structural empowerment as antecedent of job satisfaction in university settings. Psychological Thought, 7(1), 28-36.
Ozdamar, K. (2004). Paket programlar ile istatistiksel veri analizi II. Eskisehir: Kaan.
Pelit, E., Ozturk, Y., & Arslanturk, Y. (2011). The effects of employee empowerment on employee job satisfaction, a study on hotels in Turkey. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 23(6), 784-802.
Polatci, S., & Ozcalik, F. (2013). Yapisal ve psikolojik guclendirmenin isyeri nezaketsizligi ve tukenmislige etkisi/ The effects of structural and psychological empowerment on workplace incivility and burnout. The Journal of Business Science, 1(1), 17-35.
Rinehart, J. S., Short, P. M., Short, R. J., & Eckley, M. (1998). Teacher empowerment and principal leadership: Understanding the influence process. Educational Administration Quarterly, 34(1), 630-649.
Short, P. M. (1994). Defining teacher empowerment. Education, 114(4), 488-492.
Spreitzer, G. M. (1995). Psychological empowerment in the workplace: Dimensions, measurement, and validation. Academy of Management Journal, 38(5), 1442-1465.
Surgevil, O., Tolay, E., & Topoyan, M. (2013). Yapısal guclendirme ve psikolojik guclendirme olceklerinin gecerlik ve guvenirlik analizleri. Journal of Yasar University, 8(31), 5371-5391.
Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2001). Using multivariate statistics. Boston: Ally & Bacon.
Thomas, K. W., & Velthouse, B. A. (1990). Cognitive elements of empowerment: An “interpretive” model of intrinsic task motivation. Academy of Management Review, 15(4), 666-681.
Tolay, E., Surgevil, O., & Topoyan, M. (2012). Impact of structural and psychological empowerment on affective commitment and job satisfaction in academic work settings. Ege Academic Review, 12(4), 449-465.
Wilkinson, A. (1998). Empowerment: Theory and practice. Personnel Review, 27(1), 40-56.
Call for Papers
UNIBULLETIN is calling for submissions to the Vol. 9, Issue 2, 2020.
Authors are invited to submit papers from the broader fields of the social sciences and related disciplines in the international context.
All submissions should be presented only in English. Manuscripts should be send to the Editor-in-Chief via e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org