Determinants of Urban Household Saving Behavior in Ethiopia: A Survey Study in Mekelle City
pp. 82-95 | Published Online: July 2018 | DOI: 10.22521/unibulletin.2018.72.1
Abdela Yasin Saliya
This study is conducted under the title “Determinants of Urban Household Saving Behavior in Ethiopia.” Its main objective was to empirically investigate the determinants of urban household saving behavior in Mekelle city, Ethiopia. Cross-sectional primary data was collected using self-administered open-ended and closed-ended questionnaires from 150 households from seven sub-cities of Mekelle city. Selection of the sample was by two stage stratified sampling techniques, where the first stage units were sub-cities and the second stage units were the households. Descriptive statistics and binary logistic regression model was used to test the formulated hypotheses. The study found that household headed by a female, total income of household, and saving experience had a positive and significant impact on household saving. However, age of the household head, additional earner in the household, and dependency ratio of the household had a negative and significant influence on household saving. The governing saving motive found in this study was precautionary motive. The study recommended that government in collaboration with financial institutions should promote household saving by introducing different packages of prize-linked promotional savings; government should continue and spend the utmost effort to stabilize inflationary pressures using short-term and long-term strategies; and, government should strive to increase the disposable income of households. This study focused on household saving using only financial saving and employed smaller sample and binary logit regression model. Thus, further research may be undertaken to incorporate larger samples by employing other econometric models such as Heckman sample selection model and OLS regression models.
Keywords: saving, household, urban, Ethiopia, logit
Individual and State Land Dispute Management Aystem in Ethiopia: Appraisal of the Legislative Framework
pp. 96-107 | Published Online: July 2018 | DOI: 10.22521/unibulletin.2018.72.2
Muhammed Kebie Hillo
Land dispute composes various types of dispute which range from a simple boundary dispute to a wider ownership rights claim. In Ethiopia, the right to own rural and urban land as well as natural resources belongs to the state and the people. Land is a source of dispute in Ethiopia, just as in other parts of the world. The issue of land dispute between individuals and the state in Ethiopia arises when there is an expropriation of individual land holding by the state. An appraisal of existing legislation governing the dispute settlement mechanism in Ethiopia in line with property rights theories demonstrates that there is a limitation on the subject matter of the complaint; that the administrative body to hear grievances is not independent as it is politically appointed; and, individual disputants are required to hand over the land in order to lodge an appeal. The existing dispute settlement mechanism in general can be said to be inappropriate as the land taker is empowered to handle the dispute. This in turn makes landholders face multifaceted social and economic hardship. The dispute settlement scheme must therefore be rectified with the establishment of an independent body empowered to hear grievances, such as a specialized court convened for this purpose.
Keywords: land, land dispute, dispute settlement mechanisms, administrative body
Future Possibilities for Transitional Justice in Somalia
pp. 108-118 | Published Online: July 2018 | DOI: 10.22521/unibulletin.2018.72.3
Muhammed Hamid Muhammed
Societies emerging from violent civil war and conflict face a dilemma as to what comes first between peace and justice. Practical experiences, however, show that usually peace processes are more prioritized than the issue of justice. Nevertheless, peace processes can be sustainable only if the issues of justice are integrated. The incorporation of justice will resolve the issue of violent crime, crimes against humanity, and gross human rights violations committed throughout the conflict. Somalia, as a country passing through such a phase, needs to facilitate the process of peace and justice cohesively. The way justice is served in a transitional society is known as transitional justice. Transitional justice mechanisms enable transitional societies to address the issue of victims and perpetrators of violent crime. This paper highlights the Somalia conflict from a historical dimension and transitional justice mechanisms that could be applied in Somalia. Methodologically, the paper, solely follows a desk review method.
Keywords: human rights violations, transition justice, Ad hoc tribunals, Shari’ah, Xeer
Perceptions of College of Education Students on Factors Causing Low Enrolment in Chemistry Education
pp. 119-127 | Published Online: July 2018 | DOI: 10.22521/unibulletin.2018.72.4
Nusirat Bolanle Yusuf and Micheal Olu Ayodele
The role of Chemistry in the promotion of national development cannot be over emphasized, consequently there is a need to put in place all that will sustain the acquisition of knowledge such as the number of students studying it. Therefore, the current study investigated the perceptions of college of education students on factors causing low enrolment in the learning of Chemistry. The study involved 120 students enrolled at the Kwara State College of Education (Technical) Lafiagi studying Chemistry Education. A researcher-designed scale named the Perception of College Students on Factors Causing Low Enrolment Questionnaire (PCSFCLEQ) was used to elicit information from the respondents. The reliability of the instrument was determined using Cronbach alpha and a reliability coefficient of .71 was obtained. The data gathered from the study was analyzed using frequency counts and percentage, while two null hypotheses formulated were tested using t-test. Findings from the study revealed that the students perceived 10 items as factors causing low enrolment of college students in the learning of Chemistry which were then categorized into three factors. It was also revealed that gender influenced the perceptions of the students, which was in favor of female students, whilst the students’ grade level did not influence their perceptions. It was therefore recommended to use a model such as multiple representation of Chemistry concepts as well as visualization tools by teacher trainers so as to promote the abstract nature of Chemistry as it constituted a negative influence for students learning Chemistry. Also, both male and female students should be afforded equal opportunity when it comes to the learning of Chemistry.
Keywords: perceptions, college of education, low enrolment, learning of chemistry
Traditional Conflict Resolution Mechanisms in Kaffa Society of Ethiopia
pp. 128-142 | Published Online: July 2018 | DOI: 10.22521/unibulletin.2018.72.5
Bisrat Gebru Wolde
This paper is aimed at investigating the traditional conflict resolution mechanisms of Kaffa society. Exploratory design was used in this study as the issue was being studied for the first time. The participants of the study are elders, religious leaders and influential people from the study area. Those participants were selected using purposive sampling technique. The data for this study was collected using semi-structured in-depth interview and Focus group discussions. The findings of this study show that land disputes, marital conflicts, drinking alcohol, clan conflicts and religious conflicts are the major types and causes of conflict in Kaffa society. It is also found that there is gender difference concerning the immediate actions taken in the incidence of conflicts. While women mostly limit their action to verbal insults, men tend to opt to physical violence. The most common traditional conflicts resolutions mechanisms in Kaffa society are Shimgelena, Tommo and Eqqo systems. While shimgelena is also widely used in other communities of Ethiopia, Tommo and Eqqo are indigenous to Kaffa society. Although those traditional conflict resolution mechanisms are most effective among older people, younger people tend to disregard the mechanisms due to ‘modernity’ and religious reasons.
Keywords: traditional, conflict resolution, shimgelena, tommo, eqqo.
Prediction of Academic Staffs’ Organizational Silence through their Power Distance Perceptions
pp. 143-166 | Published Online: July 2018 | DOI: 10.22521/unibulletin.2018.72.6
Aycan Cicek Saglam, Yilmaz Ilker Yorulmaz, Burcu Turkkas Anasiz, Ibrahim Colak, and Nahide Nur Dumlu
This research aimed to determine the role of power distance perceptions of academic staff working in faculties of education on their organizational silence. The population of the study consisted of 8,978 academic staff working at education faculties of universities in seven geographical regions of Turkey during the 2016-2017 academic year. Simple random sampling technique was employed in the study. The data of the study were collected through online questionnaires. The “Organizational Power Distance Scale” and “Organizational Silence Scale” were used as the data collection instruments in the research. Within the scope of this study, Organizational Silence Scale were adapted to Turkish language. The analyses were conducted with 481 eligible returned questionnaires. According to the regression analysis results, the dimensions of power distance perceptions of academic staff as a whole gave a medium positive and significant relationship with acquiescent silence and defensive silence, with a low positive and significant relationship with prosocial silence. Acceptance of power, instrumental use of power, and acquiescence of power were seen to be predictors of acquiescent silence and defensive silence, whereas only acceptance of power was found to be a significant predictor of prosocial silence. Academic staffs’ justification of power had no significant effect on their organizational silence. The power distance perceptions of the academic staff explained 24.4% of the total variance of their acquiescent silence, 35% of their defensive silence, and 2.3% of their prosocial silence.
Keywords: academic staff, education, organizational silence, power distance
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