Prediction of Academic Staffs’ Organizational Silence through their Power Distance Perceptions
pp. 143-166 | Published Online: July 2018 | DOI: 10.22521/unibulletin.2018.72.6
Aycan Cicek Saglam, Yilmaz Ilker Yorulmaz, Burcu Turkkas Anasiz, Ibrahim Colak, and Nahide Nur Dumlu
This research aimed to determine the role of power distance perceptions of academic staff working in faculties of education on their organizational silence. The population of the study consisted of 8,978 academic staff working at education faculties of universities in seven geographical regions of Turkey during the 2016-2017 academic year. Simple random sampling technique was employed in the study. The data of the study were collected through online questionnaires. The “Organizational Power Distance Scale” and “Organizational Silence Scale” were used as the data collection instruments in the research. Within the scope of this study, Organizational Silence Scale were adapted to Turkish language. The analyses were conducted with 481 eligible returned questionnaires. According to the regression analysis results, the dimensions of power distance perceptions of academic staff as a whole gave a medium positive and significant relationship with acquiescent silence and defensive silence, with a low positive and significant relationship with prosocial silence. Acceptance of power, instrumental use of power, and acquiescence of power were seen to be predictors of acquiescent silence and defensive silence, whereas only acceptance of power was found to be a significant predictor of prosocial silence. Academic staffs’ justification of power had no significant effect on their organizational silence. The power distance perceptions of the academic staff explained 24.4% of the total variance of their acquiescent silence, 35% of their defensive silence, and 2.3% of their prosocial silence.
Keywords: academic staff, education, organizational silence, power distanceReferences
Akyol, Ş. (2009). Power distance and leadership relation in organizational culture. (Doctoral dissertation). Istanbul: Marmara University.
Akyürek, S. (2001). Türk Silahlı Kuvvetlerinde güç mesafesi ve iletişime etkisi. (Master’s thesis). Ankara: Başkent University.
Altay, H. (2004). A study on the relationship between power distance, masculinity-femininity and uncertainty avoidance properties and success. Süleyman Demirel University, Journal of Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, 9(1), 301-321.
Altınkurt, Y. (2014). The relationship between school climate and teachers’ organizational silence behaviours. Anthropologist, 18(2), 289-297.
Altınkurt, Y., & Yılmaz, K. (2012a). Relationship between school administrators’ organizational power sources and teachers’ organizational citizenship behaviors. Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice, 12(3), 1833-1852.
Altınkurt, Y., & Yilmaz, K. (2012b). Being a female school administrator in Turkey: Views of teachers and administrators. Energy Education Science and Technology Part B: Social and Educational Studies, 4(4), 2227-2238.
Baltacı, A. (2011). Kırklareli sanayisinin gelişiminde sosyo-kültürel faktörler. 2010 yılında Kırklareli’nde sanayi ve sağlanan teşvikler bildiriler. Kırklareli University Faculty of Economics and Administrative Science, 2, 76-85.
Bayram, T. Y. (2010). Organizational silence in universities. (Master’s Thesis). Bolu: Abant İzzet Baysal University.
Bedürk, A., & Ertürk, E. (2015). The impact of power distance and organizational justice perceptions on the organizational citizenship behaviour in the context of social exchange theory. The Journal of Business Science, 3(1), 1-19.
Begley, T. M., Lee, C., Fang, Y., & Jianfeng, L. G. (2002). Power distance as a moderator of the relationship between justice and employee outcomes in a sample of Chinese employees. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 17(8), 692-711.
Çakıcı, A. (2007). Silence at organizations: Theoretical backgrounds of silence and its dynamics. Journal of Çukurova University Institute of Social Sciences, 16(1), 145-162.
Çakıcı, A. (2008). A research on issues, causes and perceptional results of silence at organizations. Journal of Çukurova University Institute of Social Sciences, 17(1), 117-134.
Çelik, M. (2007). Organizational culture and organizational citizenship behavior. (Doctoral dissertation). Erzurum: Atatürk University.
Çiçek-Sağlam, A., & Yüksel, A. (2015). The views of managers and teachers working in high schools about organizational silence. Turkish Studies, 10(7), 317-332.
Çokluk, O. (2010). Logistic regression: Concept and application. Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice, 10(3), 1357-1407.
Deniz, A. (2013). The relationship between power distance and organizational commitment at schools. (Master’s thesis). Balıkesir: Balıkesir University.
Durak, İ. (2014). Relationships between organizational silence and demographics, institutional factors: A study on academic staffs. Ataturk University Journal of Economics & Administrative Sciences, 28(2), 89-108.
Dyne, L. V., Ang, S., & Botero, I. C. (2003). Conceptualizing employee silence and employee voice as multidimensional constructs. Journal of Management Studies, 40(6), 1359-1392.
Erden, S. (2012). Surveying influence of cultural variances on affects regarding intergenerational conflicts in organisations: A survey aimed at academicians. (Doctoral dissertation). Çanakkale: Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University.
Erdoğan, Y., Yaman, E., Şentürk, Ö., & Kalyoncu, E. (2008). Power distance in web-based education: The case of Bilgi University. Journal of Values Education, 6(15), 115-137.
Eroğlu, A. H., Adıgüzel, O., & Öztürk, U. C. (2011). Dilemma of silence vortex and commitment: Relationship between employee silence and organizational commitment. Suleyman Demirel University Journal of Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, 16(2), 97-124.
Gong, J. (2006). Power. In F. W. English (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Educational Leadership and Administration (Vol. 2)New Delhi, India: Sage.
Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B., & Anderson, R. E. (2010). Multi-variate data analysis (7th ed.). New Jersey: Pearson Education.
Halo, M. L. (2015). Relationship between glass ceiling syndrome and power distance: An applied research with the academics. (Master’s thesis). Istanbul: Bahçeşehir University.
Hatch, M. J. (1997). Organization theory modern, symbolic and postmodern perspectives. Oxford, UK: Oxford University.
Hofstede, G. (1994). Cultures and organizations: Software of the mind. London, UK: Harper Collins.
Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture’s consequences: Comparing values, behaviors, institutions, and organizations across nations (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Horner, A. (1997). Güç: Güç sahibi olma isteği ve güce sahip olmaktan korkma (S. Kunt, Trans.). Ankara: HYB.
Hoşgörür, T., & Yorulmaz, Y. İ. (2016). The effect of power sources used by lecturers in class management on the pre-service teachers’ perceptions of fairness regarding their learning environment. Cukurova University Faculty of Education Journal, 45(2), 375-404.
Kahveci, G., & Demirtaş, Z. (2013). School administrator and teachers’ perceptions of organizational silence. Education and Science, 38(167), 50-64.
Kahya, C. (2015). The relationship between organizational silence and burnout syndrome. Turkish Studies, 10(10), 523-546.
Kalay, F., Oğrak, A., & Nişancı, Z. N. (2014). The relationship between mobbing, organizational silence and organizational cynicism: An empirical study. Kastamonu University Journal of Economics & Administrative Sciences Faculty, 4(2), 127-143.
Kirkman, B. I., Chen, G., Farh, J., Chen, Z. X., & Lowe, K. B. (2009). Individual power distance orientation and followers’ reactions to transformational leaders: A cross-level, cross-cultural examination. Academy of Management Journal, 52(4), 744-764.
Kulualp, H. G. (2016). Determining the relationship between some personal and organizational features with employee voice: A study on academics. Ege Academic Review, 16(4), 745-761.
Kutanis, R. Ö., & Çetinel, E. (2014). Silence of women: A research on public schools. Amme İdaresi Dergisi, 47(1), 153-173.
Loi, R. L., Long, W., & Chanka, W. (2012) Coping with job insecurity: The role of procedural justice, ethical leadership and power distance orientation. Journal of Business Ethics, 108(3), 361-372.
Macit, G. (2010). Effect of cultural values on communication styles: A study on Mehmet Akif Ersoy University students. (Master’s thesis). Isparta: Süleyman Demirel University.
Morrison, E. W., & Milliken, F. J. (2000). Organizational silence: A barrier to change and development in a pluralistic world. Academy of Management Review, 25(4), 706-725.
Morrison, E. W., & Milliken, F. J. (2003). Speaking up, remaining silent: The dynamics of voice and silence in organizations. Journal of Management Studies, 40(6), 1353-1358.
Nartgün, Ş. S., & Demirer, S. (2012). Teachers’ opinions regarding their organizational silence and loneliness levels in the workplace. Bayburt Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 7(2), 139-156.
Nartgün, Ş. S., & Kartal, V. (2013). Teachers’ perceptions on organizational cynicism and organizational silence. Bartın University Journal of Faculty of Education, 2(2), 47-67.
Özgan, H., & Külekçi, A. G. E. (2012). The reasons of academic staff silence and its effect on their university. E-International Journal of Educational Research, 3(4), 33-49.
Pfeffer, J. (1992). Managing with power. Boston: Harvard Business School.
Pinder, C. C., & Harlos, K. P. (2001). Employee silence: Quiescence and acquiescence as responses to perceived injustice. In M. R. Buckley, J. R. B. Halbesleben, & A. R. Wheeler (Eds.), Research in personnel and human resources management, 20 (pp. 331-369). Bingley, UK: Emerald Publishing.
Rollinson, D., & Broadfield, A. (2002). Organisational behaviour and analysis. Edinburg: Pearson.
Salancik, C. R., & Pfeffer, J. (1977). Who gets power-and how they hold on to it: A strategic contingency model of power. Organizational Dynamics, 5(3), 3-21.
Scott, J. (2001). Power (1st ed.). London: Polity.
Solmazer, G. (2013). Reactions to performance feedback and source: The moderating effect of individualism/collectivism and power distance. (Master’s thesis). Ankara: Middle East Technical University.
Şimşek, E., & Aktaş, H. (2014). The interactions of organizational silence with personality and life satisfaction: A research on public sector. Anadolu University Journal of Social Sciences, 14(2), 121-136.
TDK. (2013). Güncel Türkçe sözlük. Retrieved from http://www.tdk.gov.tr
Terzi, A. R. (2004). A research on power distance and uncertainty avoidance of university students perceptions. Afyon Kocatepe University Journal of Social Sciences, 5(2), 65-76.
Tezel, A. (2004). Aile içi iletişim. International Journal of Human Sciences, 1(1), 1-6.
Turan, S., Durceylan, B., & Şişman, M. (2005). Üniversite yöneticilerinin benimsedikleri idari ve kültürel değerler. MANAS Journal of Social Studies, 7(13), 181-202.
Tülübaş, T., & Celep, C. (2014). Causes of faculty members’ silence. Hacettepe University Journal of Education, 29(1), 280-297.
Uslu, O. (2013). The effect of power distance perception to organizational trust: Sample of a state university. (Master’s thesis). Sakarya: Sakarya University.
Uslu, O., & Ardıç, K. (2013). Does power distance effect organizational trust? Afyon Kocatepe University Journal of Economics and Administrative Sciences, XV(2). 313-338.
Ünlü, Y., Hamedoğlu, M. A., & Yaman, E. (2015). The relationship between perceived organizational justice and organizational silence level of teachers. Sakarya University Journal of Education, 5(2), 140-157.
Weber, M. (1986). Sosyoloji yazıları (T. Parla, Trans.). Istanbul: Hürriyet Vakfı.
Weber, M. (1995). Toplumsal ve ekonomik örgütlenme kuramı (Ö. Ozankaya, Trans.). Ankara: İmge.
Weber, M. (2014). Bürokrasi ve otorite. (B. Akın, Trans.). Ankara: Adres.
Yaman, E., & Irmak, Y. (2010). Power distance between managers and teachers. Mustafa Kemal University Journal of Social Sciences Institute, 7(13), 164-172.
Yaman, E., & Ruçlar, K. (2014). Organizational silence in universities as the predictor of organizational culture. Journal of Higher Education and Science, 4(1), 36-50.
Yorulmaz, Y. İ., Çolak, İ., Altınkurt, Y., & Yılmaz, K. (2018). The validity and reliability study of organizational power distance scale. (Unpublished research report).
Zel, U. (2002). Perception of female administrators in business and the queen bee syndrome. Turkey Middle East Journal of Public Administration, 35(2), 39-48.
Call for Papers
UNIBULLETIN is calling for submissions to the Vol. 8, Issue 2, 2019.
Authors are invited to submit papers from the broader fields of the social sciences and related disciplines in the international context.
All submissions should be presented only in English. Manuscripts should be send to the Editor-in-Chief via e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Submission Deadline: June 30, 2019.