Volume 9 Issue 2 (2020)

Secondary School EFL Students’ Perceptions of The Flipped Classroom in Terms of Autonomy, Language Skills, Technological Attitudes, and Motivation

pp. 129-155  |  Published Online: December 2020  |  DOI: 10.22521/unibulletin.2020.92.5

Ozkan Kirmizi and Funda Komec


The current study was undertaken in order to investigate EFL students’ perceptions of the flipped classroom in terms of autonomy, language skills, technological attitudes and motivation at the secondary school level. The participants of the study were 113 high school students enrolled at a Turkish science high school. A mixed-method research design was adopted in the study. In order to collect quantitative data, a questionnaire was applied which included six sections: (1) Participant Gender and Grade; (2) Flipped Classrooms and Autonomous Learning; (3) Flipped Classrooms and Language Skills; (4) Flipped Classrooms and Technological Attitudes; (5) Flipped Classrooms and Motivation; and (6) Advantages and Disadvantages of Flipped Classrooms, and Suggestions for Improvements (open-ended questions). For the study’s qualitative data, a semi-structured interview approach was employed. Both the questionnaire and the interviews were administered in Turkish, so as to prevent any miscomprehension problems by the participants. The study’s results indicate that the participant students favor flipped classrooms, and that they generally held positive perceptions of flipped classrooms in terms of autonomy, language skills, technological attitudes, and motivation.

Keywords: Flipped classroom, mixed-method design, EFL students, evaluation of CALL, learner autonomy, technological attitudes, motivation.


Abeysekera, L., & Dawson, P. (2015). Motivation and cognitive load in the flipped classroom: Definition, rationale and a call for research. Higher Education Research and Development, 34(1), 1-14. https://doi.org/10.1080/07294360.2014.934336

Adnan, M. (2017). Perceptions of senior-year ELT students for flipped classroom: a materials development course. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 30(3-4), 204-222, DOI: 10.1080/09588221.2017.1301958

Ahmed, M. A. E. A. S. (2016). The effect of a flipping classroom on writing skill in English as a foreign language and students’ attitude toward flipping. US-China Foreign Language, 14(2), 98-114.

Akçayır, G., & Akçayır, M. (2018). The flipped classroom: A review of its advantages and challenges, Computers & Education, 126, 334-342.

Alsowat, H. (2016). An EFL Flipped Classroom Teaching Model: Effects on English Language Higher-order Thinking Skills, Student Engagement and Satisfaction. Journal of Education and Practice, 7(9), 108-121.

Amiryousefi, M. (2019) The incorporation of flipped learning into conventional classes to enhance EFL learners’ L2 speaking, L2 listening, and engagement. Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching, 13(2), 147-161. DOI: 10.1080/17501229.2017.1394307

Arnold-Garza, S. (2014). The flipped classroom teaching model and its use for information literacy instruction. Communications in Information Literacy, 8(1), 7-22.

Ash, K. (2012). Educators evaluate ‘flip classrooms’; benefits and drawbacks seen in replacing lectures with on-demand video. Education Week, 32(2), 6-8.

Bajurny, A. (2014). An Investigation into the Effects of Flip Teaching on Student Learning (Unpublished Master’s thesis). University of Toronto.

Başal, A. (2015). The Implementation of a Flipped Classroom in Foreign Language Teaching. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education- TOJDE, 16(4), 28-37.

Bergmann, J., & Sams, A. (2012). Flip Your Classroom: Reach Every Student in Every Class Every Day. New York, NY: International Society for Technology in Education.

Brinkmann, S. (2012). Qualitative inquiry in everyday life: Working with everyday life materials. London, United Kingdom: Sage.

Butt, A. (2014). Student views on the use of a flipped classroom approach: Evidence from Australia. Business Education & Accreditation, 6(1), 33-43.

Buyukyavuz, O., & İnal, S. (2008). A descriptive study on Turkish teachers of English regarding their professional needs, efforts for development and avail-able resources. The Asian EFL Journal, 10(3), 215-234.

Chan, V. (2001). Learning autonomously: The learners’ perspectives. Journal of Further and Higher Education, 25(3), 285-300.

Chan, V., Spratt, M., & Humphreys, G. (2002). Autonomous language learning: Hong Kong tertiary students‟ attitudes and behaviours. Evaluation and Research in Education, 16(1), 1-18.

Cohen, L., Manion, L., & Morrison, K. (2018). Research Methods in Education (8th ed.). New York, NY: Routledge.

Cotterall, S. (1995). Readiness for autonomy: Investigating learner beliefs. System, 23(2), 195-205.

Cotterall, S. (1999). Key variables in language learning: What do learners believe about them? System, 27(4), 493-513.

Creswell, J. (2003). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods approaches. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Davies, R. S., Dean, D. L., & Ball, N. (2013). Flipping the classroom and instructional technology integration in a college-level information systems spreadsheet course. Educational Technology Research and Development, 61(4), 563-580.

Dickinson, L. (1995). Autonomy and motivation a literature review. System, 23(2), 165-174.

Dörnyei, Z. (2007). Research methods in applied linguistics: Quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methodologies. New York, NY: Oxford University.

Ekmekçi, E. (2017). The flipped writing classroom in Turkish EFL context: A comparative study on a new model. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education, 18(2), 151-167.

Flipped Learning Network. (2014). The Four Pillars of F-L-I-P™. Retrieved from http://flippedlearning.org/cms/lib07/VA01923112/Centricity/Domain/46/FLIP_handout_FNL_Web.pdf

Haghighi, H., Jafarigohar, M., Khoshsima, H., & Vahdany, F. (2018). Impact of flipped classroom on EFL learners’ appropriate use of refusal: achievement, participation, perception. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 32(3), 261-293. DOI: 10.1080/09588221.2018.1504083

Han, Y. J. (2015). Successfully Flipping the ESL Classroom for Learner Autonomy. NYS TESOL Journal, 2(1), 98-109.

Hsieh, J. S. C., Wu, W.-C. V., & Marek, M. W. (2016). Using the flipped classroom to enhance EFL learning. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 30(1-2), 1-21, DOI: 10.1080/09588221.2015.1111910

Holec, H. (1981). Autonomy and Foreign Language Learning. Oxford, United Kingdom: Pergamon. (Originally published 1979, Strasbourg: Council of Europe)

Karabıyık, A. (2008). The Relationship between Culture of Learning and Turkish University Preparatory Students’ Readiness for Learner Autonomy (Unpublished Master’s Thesis). Bilkent University, Ankara, Turkey.

King, K. A., & Mackey, A. (2016). Research Methodology in Second Language Studies: Trends, Concerns, and New Directions. The Modern Language Journal, 100(51), 209-227 DOI: 10.1111/modl.123090026-7902/16/209–227.

Kocak, A. (2003). A study on learners’ readiness for autonomous learning of English as a foreign language. (Unpublished Master’s thesis). Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey.

Köroğlu, Z. Ç., & Çakır, A. (2017). Implementation of Flipped Instruction in Language Classrooms: An Alternative Way to Develop Speaking Skills of Pre-Service English Language Teachers. International Journal of Education and Development using Information and Communication Technology (IJEDICT), 13(2), 42-55

Kurt, G. (2017). Implementing the Flipped Classroom in Teacher Education: Evidence from Turkey. Educational Technology & Society, 20(1), 211-221.

Leavy, P. (2017). Research design, quantitative, qualitative, mixed methods, arts-based, and community-based participatory research approaches. New York, NY: Guilford.

Lee, G., & Wallace, A. (2017). Flipped Learning in the English as a Foreign Language Classroom: Outcome and Perceptions. TESOL Quarterly, 52(1), 62-84.

Li, S., & Suwanthep, J. (2017). Integration of Flipped Classroom Model for EFL Speaking. International Journal of Learning and Teaching, 3(2), 118-123.

Lin, C.-J., & Hwang, G.-J. (2018). A learning analytics approach to investigating factors affecting efl students’ oral performance in a flipped classroom. Educational Technology & Society, 21(2), 205-219.

Littlewood, W. (1999). Defining and developing autonomy in East Asian contexts. Applied Linguistics, 20(1), 71-94.

Mason, G. S., Shuman, T. R., & Cook, K. E. (2013). Comparing the Effectiveness of an Inverted Classroom to a Traditional Classroom in an Upper-Division Engineering Course. IEEE Transactions on Education, 56(4), 400-435.

Mehring J. G. (2016). Present research on the flipped classroom and potential tools for the EFL classroom. Computers in the Schools, 33(1), 1-10.

Reyna, J. (2015). Active learning and the flipped classroom. Training & Development, 42(5), 30-31.

Riazi, A. M. (2016). Innovative mixed-methods research: moving beyond design technicalities to epistemological and methodological realizations. Applied Linguistics, 37(1), 33-49.

Riazi, A. M., & Candlin, C. N. (2014). Mixed-methods research in language teaching and learning: Opportunities, issues and challenges. Language Teaching, 47(2), 135-173.

Roller, M. R., & Lavrakas, P. J. (2015). Applied qualitative research design: A total quality framework approach. New York, NY: Guilford Press.

Roth, C., & Suppasetseree, S. (2016). Flipped Classroom: Can It Enhance English Listening Comprehension for Pre-university Students in Cambodia? In Proceedings of CLaSIC 2016, (pp. 255-264). National University of Singapore Centre for Language Studies.

Schmenk, B. (2005). Globalising Learner Autonomy. TESOL Quarterly, 39(1), 107-118.

Song, Y., & Kapur, M. (2017). How to Flip the Classroom – Productive Failure or Traditional Flipped Classroom Pedagogical Design? Educational Technology & Society, 20(1), 292-305.

Strayer, J. F. (2007). The effects of the classroom flip on the learning environment: A comparison of learning activity in a traditional classroom and a flip classroom that used an intelligent tutoring system (Doctoral dissertation). Ohio State University.

Turner, D. W. (2010). Qualitative Interview Design: A Practical Guide for Novice Investigators. The Qualitative Report, 15(3), 754-760.

Wanner, T., & Palmer, E. (2015). Personalising learning: Exploring student and teacher perceptions about flexible learning and assessment in a flipped university course. Computers & Education, 88, 354-369.

Webb, M., & Doman, E. (2019). Impacts of flipped classrooms on learner attitudes towards technology-enhanced language learning. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 33(3), 240-274. DOI: 10.1080/09588221.2018.1557692

Winter, J. W. (2018). Performance and Motivation in a Middle School Flipped Learning Course. TechTrends, 62, 176-183. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11528-017-0228-7.

Wu, W.-C. V., Hsieh, J. S. C., & Yang, J. C. (2017). Creating an Online Learning Community in a Flipped Classroom to Enhance EFL Learners’ Oral Proficiency. Educational Technology & Society, 20(2), 142-157.

Zainuddin, Z., & Perera, C. J. (2019). Exploring students’ competence, autonomy and relatedness in the flipped classroom pedagogical model. Journal of Further and Higher Education, 43(1), 115-126. DOI: 10.1080/0309877X.2017.1356916

Zhao, Y., & Ho, A. D. (2014). Evaluating the flipped classroom in an undergraduate history course (HarvardX Research Memo). Cambridge, MA; Harvard Graduate School Of Education.


Call for Papers

UNIBULLETIN is calling for submissions to the Vol. 10, Issue 1, 2021.

Authors are invited to submit papers from the broader fields of the social sciences and related disciplines in the international context. 

All submissions should be presented only in English. Manuscripts should be send to the Editor-in-Chief via e-mail: editor@unibulletin.com