Volume 6 Issue 2 (2017)

An Assessment of Teachers’ Perception and Practice of Gender Equality in Education: The Case of Secondary Schools in Ambo Town Administration, Ethiopia

pp. 19-42  |  Published Online: December 2017  |  DOI: 10.22521/unibulletin.2017.62.2

Shelema Dadi, Girma Defere, Rahel Asefa

Abstract

With significant importance and effort from the Ethiopian Government and non-governmental organizations to achieve gender equality in education, this study intended to critically assess teachers’ perceptions and the practice of gender equality in education in Ambo Town administration secondary schools. A mixed research approach was selected involving interviews, questionnaires, focus group discussions and document study as the data collection instruments. The data collected was analyzed with both descriptive and inferential statistics. Descriptive statistics measurement such as frequency, percentage, mean and standard deviation were used; whereas in inferential statistics, ANOVAs variance and T-test were employed. The results of the descriptive statistics revealed that most of the teachers’ have a favorable perception of gender equality, but that they lack the skills to practice it. Harmful traditional practices, sexual harassment, sexual abuse and bullying were found to be the main challenges to practicing gender equality; however, the teachers’ lack knowledge and skill to respond to gender-based violence in education. ANOVAs variance revealed that teachers’ demographic characteristics such as teachers’ background and level of education made no significant difference regarding the perception, practice, challenges and teachers’ responses to gender-based violence in schools. However, significant differences were found with age and teaching experience on challenges to practice gender equality in education. Independent T-test found significant differences between male and female teachers with perception practice and teachers’ response to gender-based violence in their school. However, no significant difference was found between the genders with regard to challenges in practicing gender equality in education. On the other hand, no significant differences were revealed with regard to school types on the perception, practice and teachers’ responses to gender-based violence, except on the challenge to practice gender equality in education. Based on these findings, the study recommended that teachers should be trained on gender and sexual reproductive health to avoid bias they may bring to the classroom and on how to identify students who are experiencing problems. For instance, there should be inclusive, active gender clubs, separate toilets, school counselors, procedures for a safe way of reporting victims and perpetrators of abuse, and feminine hygiene products provided in the school.

Keywords: gender, gender equality, gender equality in education, teachers’ perception, practice, challenges, gender-based violence, ambo town

References

Ahl, H. (2004). The Scientific Reproduction of Gender inequality: A discourse Analysis of research Texts on Women's Entrepreneurship (O. Håkansson, Ed.) Sweden: Liber. Copenhagen Business School Press.

Aster, M., & Meskerem, C. (2014). Status of Gender Parity in the Ethiopian General Education. Bahirdar University: Department of teacher Education and Curriculum Studies, Faculty of Education and Behavioral Science.

Burke Johnson, R., Onwuegbuzie, A. J., & Turner, L. A. (2007). Towards a definition of Mixed Methods of Research. Journal of Mixed method Research , 1 (2), 112-133.

Creswell, J. W. (2003). Research design: A qualitative, quantitative, and mixed method approaches. London: Sage Publication.

Dankelman, I. (2005). Gender Equality and Equity: At the heart of the Earth Charter. In P. B. Corcoran, M. Vilela, & A. Roerink (Eds.),. The Earth Charter (pp. 104-105). Amsterdam, Netherlands: Royal Tropical Institute (KIT).

Eshetu, E. (2015). Assessment of sexual harassment and associated factors among grade 9-12 female students at schools in Ambo District. Science Journal of Public Health, 3(1), 97-100.

Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia. (1995). The Constitution of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia. Addis Ababa: Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia.

Feminism Basic Principles. (2005). Sociology Central, Notes: Sociological Theory. Retrieved on May 3, 2016, from www.sociology.org.uk

Hilina, B. (2015). National Assessment: Ethiopia Gender Equality and the knowledge Society. Los Angeles: Sida.

Holmes, M. (2007). What is Gender. London: Sage Publications.

Ifegbesan, A. (2010). Gender-stereotypes Beliefs and practices in the classroom: the Nigerian Post-primary School teachers. Global Journal of Human Social Science , 10(4), 29-38.

INEE. (2010). Gender equality in and Through Education. Geneva, Switzerland: INEE.

Israel, G. D. (2013). Determining Sample Size:. Institute of Food and Agricultural Science (IFAS) Extension. Gainesville, FL: University of Florida.

Kajornboon, A. B. (2005). Using Interviews as research Instruments: Language Institute. Bangkok, Thailand: Chulalongkorn University.

Kothari, C. R. (2004). Research Methodology. Jaipur, India: New Age International.

Letham, B. (2007). Sampling: What is it? Quantitative Research Sampling. ENGL 5377 – Theoretical Approaches to Technical Communication. Lubbock, TX: Texas Technical University.

Lorber, J. (1997). The variety of feminism and their Contribution to Gender Equality. Oldenburg: Oldenburg University, ISBN;3-8142-1097-2.

Marshal, M. N. (1996). Sampling for Qualitative Research: Family Practice. 13(6), 95-196.

McCracken, K., Unterhalter, E., Márquez, S., & Chelstowska, A. (2015). Empowering Women and girls through education. Directorate General For Internal Policies. Brussels: European Parliament.

Monagahan, M. M. (2014). Gender Equality and Education: Examining Preservice teachers' Perceptions. GEMS(Gender, Education, Music & Society, 7(8), 4-12.

Owens, S. L., Smothers, B. C., & Love, F. E. (2003). Are Girls Victims of Gender Bias in our Nation’s Schools? Journal of Instructional Psychology , 30(2), 131-136.

SADEV. (2010). Gender Equality in and through Education. Karlstad, Sweden: SADEV.

Shrestha, S. L. (2012). Gender equality in Education: teacher's perception and Practice of Gender Equality in schools. Dhulikhel, Nepal: Kathmandu University.

Subramanian, R. (2005). Gender Equality in education: Definition and measurements. International Journal of Educational Development, 25, 395-407.

Towery, I. D. (2007). Fostering Gender Equity in Schools Through Reflective Professional Development: A critical Analysis of Teachers Perspective. PennGSE Perspectives on Urban Education, 5(1).

UNESCO. (2011). Gender Equality in Education: Looking Beyond Parity. Paris, France: UNESCO.

UNESCO. (2012, May 24). One year after the launch of the Global Partnership on Girls’ and Women’s Education: facts and figures. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: UNESCO Liaison Office in Addis Ababa.

UNESCO. (2015a). A Guide for Gender Equality in Teacher Education: Policy and Practice. Paris: UNESCO.

Announcement

Call for Papers

UNIBULLETIN is calling for submissions to the Vol. 7, Issue 1, 2018.

Authors are invited to submit papers from the broader fields of the social sciences and related disciplines in the international context. 

All submissions should be presented only in English. Manuscripts should be send to the Editor-in-Chief via e-mail: editor@unibulletin.com

Submission Deadline: March 31, 2018.