Volume 5 Issue 1-2 (2016)

Reflections of Neoliberal Perspective on Education in the Ninth Development Plan

pp. 38-52  |  Published Online: December 2016  |  DOI: 10.22521/unibulletin.2016.512.4

Fahrettin Korkmaz, Serkan Unsal


Development plans are documents that cover a country’s future predictions on different fields such as health, education, agriculture, and industry. They also state what public and private sectors do and what they need to do in the future, as official papers including governments’ predictions on the country’s future, development plans may be affected by different ideologies. Like many other developing countries, Turkey has started to be affected by neoliberalism since the 1980s. How can this affect be seen in the development plans? On which clauses in the development plans can the reflection of neoliberalism be explicitly or implicitly observed? Which term and principles related to neoliberalism take place in which clauses within the development plan? Within the scope of stated problems, Turkey’s Ninth Development Plan is analyzed and discussed in this study. The current study applied documentary analysis, one of the qualitative research designs. As a result, some clauses of the Ninth Development Plan have been determined to be closely related with education and the economy. It has also been found that almost all clauses related to education in the development plan include some neoliberalism associated terms such as workforce, employment, and workforce competence.

Keywords: development plan, neoliberalism, neoliberalism, education


Akin, U., & Arslan, G. (2014). Ideology and education: a different view on the relationship between state and education. Trakya University Faculty of Education Journal, 4(1) ,81-90.

Aktas, M. C. (2015). Qualitative Data Collection Tools. In M. Metin (Ed.) Scientific Research Methods in Education (pp. 337-371). Ankara: Pegem Akademi.

Apple, M. W. (2001). The state and the politics of knowledge. London: Routledge.

Apple, M. W. (2004). Critical Writings on Neoliberalism and Education Policy. Ankara: Education Sen pup.

Aronowitz, S.  & Giroux, H. A. (1997). Postmodern Education: Politics, Culture, And Social Criticism. Third printing. London: University of Minnesota Pres.

Aytac, O. (2006). Entrepreneurship: A Socio-Cultural Perspective. Dumlupinar University Social Sciences Journal, 15(15), 139-160.

Bowles, S.  & Gintis, H. (2011). Schooling in capitalist America. Newyork: Haymarket Books.

Clarke, S. (2005). The Neoliberal Theory of Society. In A. Saad-Filho & D. Johnston (Ed.), Neoliberalism (pp. 50-59). London: Pluto Press.

Darder, A. (2015). Foreword. In Neoliberalizing Educational Reform. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers. (ıx-xviii)

Davidson, H.A., & Schugurensky, D. (2009). Neoliberalism and Education in Latin America: Entrenched Problems, Emerging Alternatives. In D. Hill &E. Rosskam (Ed), The Developing World and State Education (pp. 13-33). New York: Routledge.

Dikkaya, M.  & Özyakışır, D. (2006). Globalization and Information Society, Globalization of Education and The Effects of Neoliberal Policies. International Relations Journal, 167,168.

Dumenil, G ,& Levy, D.(2005).The Neoliberal (Counter) Revolution. In A. Saad- Filho &D. Johnston (Ed.), Neoliberalism (pp. 9-19). London: Pluto Press.

Ercan, F. (2006). An Alternative Framework for the Anatomy of Neoliberal Education Policies, Ankara, Turkey: Middle East Technical University. Retrieved on 15.10.2016 from http://www.metu.edu.tr/home/.

Ercan, F., & Uzunyayla, F. (2009). A class perspective on the new actors and their demands from the Turkish education system. Hill, D. ve E. Rosskam (Ed.), In The Developing World and State Education: Neoliberal Depradation and Egalitarian Alternatives, (pp.109-124). New York: Routledge,

Ergun, M. (2011). Egitim ve Kalkinma. 3.Sosyal Bilimler Sempozyumu. Dicle Universitesi Sosyal Arastirmalar Merkezi, 5-12. Diyarbakir.

Giroux, H. (2006). America on the edge: Henry Giroux on politics, culture, and education. . New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Giroux, H. A. (2002). Neoliberalism, corporate culture, and the promise of higher education: The university as a democratic public sphere. Harvard Educational Review, 72(4), 425-464.

Golob, U., Podnar, K.  & Lah, M. (2009). Social economy and social responsibility: alternatives to global anarchy of neoliberalism?  International Journal of Social Economics, 36(5), 626-640.

Gumus, A. T. (2010). The development and transformation of the social state. Istanbul: On İki Levha Yayıncılık.

Gumus, A. T. (2012). Transformation of rights to education. Journal of Social Studies Education Research, 3(1), 119-134.

Guner, H., Celebi, N., Kaya, G. T., & Korumaz, M. (2014). Analysis of International Tests (PISA, TIMSS and PIRLS) in the Context of Neoliberal Education Policies and Equality of Opportunity in Education. Journal of History Culture and Art Researches, 3(3), 33-75.

Gutek, G. L. (2006). Philosophical And Ideological Perspectives On Education (N. Kale, Trans.). Ankara: Utopya.

Harvey, D. (2005). A brief history of neoliberalism. New York: Oxford University Press.

Hicks, D. W. (2013). Teaching for a Better World: Learning for sustainability. Geography, 99(1), 5-12.

Hill, D. (2003). Global neo-liberalism, the deformation of education and resistance. Journal for Critical Education Policy Studies, 1(1).

Hill, D. (2004). Books, Banks and Bullets: controlling our minds-the global project of imperialistic and militaristic neo-liberalism and its effect on education policy. Policy Futures in Education, 507-515.

Hill, D. (2010). Class, capital, and education in this neoliberal and neo conservative period. In S. Macrine, P. McLaren,& D. Hill (Ed.), Revolutionizing Pedagogy (pp. 119-143). USA: Palgrave Macmillan.

Hugo Radice, H. (2005). Neoliberal Globalisation: Imperialism without Empires? In Neoliberalism A Critical Reader. Alfredo S., F. & D. Johnston. (Ed.)  London: Pluto Press. (91-98).

Hursh, D. (2000). Neoliberalism and the Control of Teachers, Students, and Learning: The Rise of Standards, Standardization, and Accountability. Cultural Logic: Marxist Theory & Practice Journal, 4(1), Fall 2000.

Inac, M. & Demiray, M. (2004). Neo-liberalism as a political ideology. Dumlupınar University Social Sciences Journal, 163-184.

Inal, K. (1996). The ideological dimension in education. Ankara: Doruk Yayincilik.

Inal, K. (2013). Big bourgeoisie and education in turkey. A critical analysis of turkish industry and business association’s education reports. Education Science Society, 11(42), 27-64.

Milios, J. (2005). European Integration as a Vehicle of Neoliberal Hegemony. Alfredo S., F. & D. Johnston. (Ed.) In Neoliberalism A Critical Reader, pp. 208-215.  London: Pluto Press.

Mukul, S. & Sari, I. (2011). Neoliberal education in Turkey reflected on geography textbooks. Education Science Society, 129-145.

Oakley, P.  & Garforth, C.  (1985). Guide to extension training: Understanding Extension, food and agriculture. Rome: Organization of the United Nations.

Pinar, W. F. (2004).  What is curriculum theory? London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Plehwe, D., Walpen, B.  & Neunhöffer, G. (2006). In Introduction: Reconsidering Neoliberal Hegemony. D. Plehwe,B. Walpen, & G. Neunhöffer (Ed.), Neoliberal Hegemony: A Global Critique. London: Routledge.

Sayilan, F. (2006). Global Actors (DB and GATS) and Neoliberal Transformation in Education. Ankara: TMMOB Association of Geological Engineers News Bulletin.

Tavsancil, E. & Aslan, E. (2001). Content analysis and application examples. Istanbul: Epsilon Yayinlari.

Tolunay, A.  & Akyol, A. (2006). Development And Rural Development: Main Concepts And Definitions. Turkish Journal of Forestry, 2, 116-127.

Tolunay, A. & Korkmaz, M.(2003). Development, Rural Development and Participation. In the Proceedings of II. National Forestry Congress, 19-20 Mach 2003 (pp. 194-204). Ankara.

Torres, C.,  A. (2008). Education And Neoliberal Globalization. London: Routledge.

Yildirim, A. & Simsek, H. (2011). Qualitative research methods in social sciences. Ankara: Seckin Yayincilik.

Yildiz, A. (2012). Transformation of Adult Education in Turkey: From Public Education to Life-Long Learning. In Neoliberal Transformation of Education in Turkey. Inal, K.  & Akkaymak G. (Ed.) 

Yildiz, N. (2008).  Neoliberal globalization and education. D.U.  Ziya Gokalp Education Faculty Journal , 11,13-32.



► New issue coming soon! (Volume 11 Issue 1, 2022)

Call for Papers

UNIBULLETIN is calling for submissions. Authors are invited to submit papers from the all fields of the Education (General) and Social Sciences (General) in the international context. All submissions should be presented only in English.