Volume 7 Issue 1 (2018)

Investigation of Students‘ Commitment to Schools in terms of some Variables

pp. 51-65  |  Published Online: January 2018  |  DOI: 10.22521/unibulletin.2018.71.5

Tuncay Yavuz Ozdemir


The aim of this study is to determine the predictive level of variables such as school climate, school life quality and classroom teacher behaviors on students‘ commitment to the school. For this purpose, 422 students attending secondary and high school education in the central province of Elazığ, Turkey, were included in the research sample by random sampling method. It was determined that the dataset displayed a normal distribution and statistical analyses was applied. Firstly, it was determined that there was a positive and medium-level relationship between the level of students‘ commitment to the school and the school climate, school life quality and classroom teacher behavior. It was found that school climate, school life quality and classroom teacher attitudes explain 39.6% of the variance in the level of students‘ commitment to school. It was also determined that the level of students‘ commitment to school had a significant difference in favor of students attending junior high schools according to the school type variable and in favor of female students according to the gender variable.

Keywords: school climate, school life quality, classroom teacher behaviors


Akin, A., Saricam, H., Demirci, I, Usta, F., Yalniz, A., Yildiz, B., & Akin, U. (2013, September). The Validity And Reliability Of The Turkish Version Of The School Engagement Scale. Paper presented at the 2013 World Congress of Psychological Counselling and Guidance, Istanbul.

Appleton, J. J., Christenson, S. L., Kim, D., & Reschly, A. L. (2006). Measuring cognitive and psychological engagement: Validation of the Student Engagement Instrument. Journal of School Psychology, 44(5), 427-445.

Archambault, I., Janosz, M., Fallu, J. S., & Pagani, L. S. (2009). Student engagement and its relationship with early high school dropout. Journal of Adolescence, 32(3), 651-670.

Astor, R. A., Benbenishty, R., Vinokur, A. D., & Zeira, A. (2006). Arab and Jewish Elementary School Students’ Perceptions of Fear and School Violence: Understanding The Influence of School Context. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 76(1), 91-118.

Atteberry, A., Loeb, S., & Wyckoff, J. (2017). Teacher churning: reassignment rates and implications for student achievement. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 39(1), 3-30.

Bakir Aygar, B., &. Kaya, A. (2017). The Mediator Role of School Climate on the Relationship between Middle School Students’ Sense of School Membership and Their School Loneliness. E-Uluslararasi Egitim Arastirmalari Dergisi, 8, (1), 14-27.

Basaran, E. İ. (2008). Orgutsel davranis insanin uretim gucu. Ankara: Ekinoks Yayinlari.

Bekiari, A., Heropoulou, H., & Sakellariou, K. (2005) Perceived Aggressive Physical Education Teacher Communication, Student State Satisfaction and Reasons for Discipline. Italian Journal of Sport Sciences, 12(1), 73-78.

Bellici, N. (2015). Analyzing secondary school students’ school attendance With regards to various variables. Abant İzzet Baysal Universitesi Egitim Fakultesi Dergisi, 15(1), 48-65.

Blum, R. (2005). School Connectedness: Improving the Lives of Students. Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.

Brewster, A. B., & Bowen, G. L. (2004). Teacher support and the school engagement of Latino middle and high school students at risk of school failure. Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal, 21(1), 47-67.

Bruce, G., & Crump, D. A. (2003). Association of parental involvement and social competence with school adjustment and engagement among six graders. Journal of School Health, 73(3), 121-126.

Bursalioglu, Z. (2015). Okul yonetiminde yeni yapi ve davranis. Ankara: Pegem A Yayincilik.

Buyukozturk, S., Kilic, A. G. E., Karadeniz, O. G. S., & Karatas, O. G. S. (2004). Development of Teacher Behaviors within Classroom Scale: Validity and Reliability Analysis.Educational Administration in Theory & Practice,38(38), 212-239.

Chughtai, A. A., & Zafar, S. (2006). Antecedents and consequences of organizational commitment among Pakistani university teachers. Applied H.R.M. Research, 11(1), 39-64.

Cohen, J., McCabe, L., Michelli, N. M., & Pickeral, T. (2009). School climate: Research, policy, practice, and teacher education. Teachers College Record, 111(1), 180-213.

Creswell, J. W. (2014). Arastirma deseni: Nitel, nicel ve karma yontem yaklasimlari. Ankara: Egiten.

Crosnoe, R. (2006). The connection between academic failure and adolescent drinking in secondary school. Sociology of Education, 79(1), 44-60.

Cueto S., Gabriela G., Claudia S., & Alvaro M. Z. (2010). Sense of belonging and transition to high schools in Peru. International Journal of Educational Development, 30(3), 277-287

Calik, T., & Kurt, T. (2010). Development of the School Climate Scale (SCS). Education and Science, 35(157), 167-180.

Colak, İ., Altinkurt, Y., & Yilmaz, K. (2014). The relationship between teachers’ teacher leadership roles and organizational commitment levels. Educational Process: International Journal, 3(1-2), 35-51.

Demir, O., Kaya, H. İ., & Metin, M. (2012). An Investigation of High School Students’ School Quality of Life Perceptions as an Element of School Culture. Pegem Egitim ve Ogretim Dergisi,2(4), 9-28.

Dos, İ. (2013). Happy School. Education and Science, 38(170), 266-280.

Durmaz, A. (2008). Quality of School Life in High Schools (The Case of Kirklareli Province) (Unpublished Master’s thesis). Trakya University, Edirne.

Erdem, M. (2010). Quality of work life and its relation to organizational commitment according to teachers in secondary schools. Educational Administration: Theory and Practice, 16(4), 511- 536.

Feldman, A. (2007). Teachers, responsibility and action research. Educational Action Research, 15(2),239-252.

Fredricks, J. A., Blumenfeld, P. C., & Paris, A. H. (2004). School engagement: Potential of the concept, state of the evidence. Review of educational research, 74(1), 59-109.

Frydaki, E. (2009). Values in teaching and teaching values: A review of theory and research, including the case of Greece. Mediterranean Journal of Educational Studies, 14(1), 109-128.

Furlong, M. J., & Christenson, S. L. (2008). Engaging students at school and with learning: A relevant constructs for all students. Psychology in the Schools, 45(5), 365-368.

Gordon, C. F. (2010). School belonging: An exploration of secondary students‘ perceptions of life at school (Doctoral dissertation). University of Washington. Retrieved from https://search.proquest.com/openview/8d6b99fbf58b2a73a3cec93fd4604b28/1?pq-origsite=gscholar&cbl=18750&diss=y.

Gottfredson, G., Gottfredson, D., Ann Payne, A., & Gottfredson, N. (2005). School Climate Predictors of School Disorder: Results From A National Study of Delinquency Prevention in Schools. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 42(4), 412-443.

Greenwood, C. R., & Carta, J. J. (1987). An ecobehavioral interaction analysis of instruction within special education. Focus on Exceptional Children, 19(9), 1-12.

Guclu, N. (2000). Ogretmen Davranislari. Millî Egitim, 147, 21-23.

Hallinger, P. (2010). Leadership for learning: lessons from 40 years of empirical research. Journal of Educational Administration, 49(2), 125-142.

Halstead, J. M., & Taylor, M. J. (2000). Learning and teaching about values: A review of recent research. Cambridge Journal of Education, 30(2), 169-202.

Hambleton, K. (2011). The cognitive and psychological school engagement of young offenders (Unpublished Doctoral dissertation). University College London, London.

Hernandez, T. J., & S. R. Seem. (2004). A safe school climate: A systemic approach and the school counselor. Professional School Counseling 7(4), 256-262.

Hill, L. G., & Werner, N. E. (2006). Affiliative Motivation, School Attachment, And Aggression In School. Psychology in the Schools, 43(2), 231-246.

Hopson, L. M., & Lee, E. (2011). Mitigating the Effect of Family Poverty on Academic and Behavioral Outcomes: The Role of School Climate in Middle and High School. Children and Youth Services Review, 33(11), 2221-2229.

Hoy, W. K. (2003). School Climate. In J. W. Guhtrie (Ed.), Encyclopedia of education (2nd ed.) (pp. 2121-2124). New York: Thompson Gale.

Hoy, W. K., Smith, P. A., & Sweetland, S. R. (2002). The development of the organizational climate index for high schools: Its measure and relationship to faculty trust. High School Journal, 86(2), 38-49.

Hoy, W. K., Tarter, C. J., & Kottkamp, R. B. (1991). Open Schools / Healthy Schools: Measuring organizational climate. Retrieved from http://www.waynekhoy.com/pdfs/open_schools_healthy_schools_book.pdf.

Hunt-Sartori, M. A. (2007). The Relationships Among Student Membership in Groups Quality of School Life, Sense of Belongingness and Selected Performance Factors (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Sam Houston State University, Huntsville, Texas.

Jimmieson, N., Hannam, R., & Yeo, G. (2010). Teacher Organizational Citizenship Behaviors and Job Efficacy: Implications for Student Quality of School Life. British Journal of Psychology, 101(3), 453-479.

Johnson, D., & Grayson, K. (2005). Cognitive and affective trust in service relationships. Journal of Business Research, 58(4), 500-507.

Karasar, N. (2014). Bilimsel arastirma yontemleri. Ankara: Nobel Yayin Dagitim.

Karatzias, A., Power, K., & Swanson, V. (2001). Quality of school life. Development and preliminary standardization of an instrument based on performance indicators in Scottish secondary schools. School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 12(3), 265-284.

Klem, A. M., & Connell, J. P. (2004). Relationships matter: Linking teacher support to student engagement and achievement. Journal of School Health, 74(7), 262-273.

Kortering, L. J., & Christenson, S. L. (2009). Engaging students in school and learning: The real deal for school completion. Exceptionality: A Special Education Journal, 17(1), 5-15.

Leigh, A. (2010). Estimating teacher effectiveness from two-year changes in students’ test scores. Economics of Education Review, 29(3): 480-488.

Lewis, R., & Riley, P. (2009). Teacher misbehavior. In L. J. Saha & A. G. Dworkin (Eds.), The international handbook of research on teachers and teaching (pp. 417-431). Norwell, MA: Springer.

Libbey, H. P. (2004). Measuring Student Relationships to School: Attachment, Bonding, Connectedness, and Engagement. Journal of School Health, 74(7), 274-247.

Linnakylä, P., & Brunell, V. (1996). Quality of school life in the Finnish and Swedish speaking schools in Finland. In M. Binkley, K. Rust, & T. Williams (Eds.), Reading literacy in an international perspective (pp. 203-217). U.S. Department of Education Office of Educational Research and Improvement NCES 97-875.

Lopez, V. A., & Emmer, E. T. (2002). Influences of beliefs and values on male adolescents‘ decision to commit violent offenses. Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 3(1), 28.

Loukas, A., Suzuki, R., & Horton, K. D. (2006) Examining School Connectedness as a mediator of school climate effects. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 16(3), 491-502.

Lubienski, S. T., Lubienski, C & Crane, C. C. (2008). Achievement differences and school type: The role of school climate, teacher certification and instruction. American Journal of Education, 115(1), 97-138

MacNeil, A. J., Prater, D. L., & Busch, S. (2009). The effects of school culture and climate on student achievement. International Journal of Leadership in Education, 12(1), 73-84.

Maele, D. V., & Houtte, M. V. (2010). The quality of school life: Teacher-student trust relationships and the organizational school context. Social Indicators Research, 100(1), 85-100.

Mok, M. M. C., & Flynn, M., (1997). Does School Size Affect Quality of School Life? Issues in Educational Research, 7(1), 69-86.

Mulford, B., & Silins, H. (2003). Leadership for organizational learning and improved student outcomes – what do we know? Cambridge Journal of Education, 33(2), 175-195.

Orpinas, P., & Horne, A. M. (2010). Creating a positive school climate and developing social competence. In S. R. Jimerson, S. M. Swearer, & D. L. Espelage (Eds.), Handbook of bullying in schools: An international perspective (pp. 49-59). New York, NY: Routledge.

Orthner, D., Akos, P., Rose, R., Jones-Sanpei, H., Mercado, M., & Woolley, M. (2010). CareerStart: A Middle School Student Engagement and Academic Achievement Program. Children Schools, 32(4), 223-234.

Ozdemir, S., Sezgin, F., Sirin, H., Karip, E., & Erkan, S. (2010). Examining the variables predicting primary school students’ perceptions of school climate. Hacettepe University Journal of Education, 38, 213-224.

Pallant, J. (2015). SPSS survival manual: A step by step guide to data analysis using IBM SPSS (5th ed.). NY, USA: McGraw Hill.

Payne, A. A., Gottfredson, D. C., & Gottfredson, G. R. (2003). School as communities: The relationship among communal school organization, student bonding, and school disorder. Criminology, 41(3), 749-777.

Perry, J. C., Liu, X., & Pabian, Y. (2010). School Engagement as a Mediator of Academic Performance Among Urban Youth: The Role of Career Preparation, Parental Career Support, and Teacher Support. The Counseling Psychologist, 38(2), 269-295.

Punch, K. F. (2014). Sosyal arastirmalara giris: Nicel ve nitel yaklasimlar. Ankara: Siyasal.

Ring, J., & Svensson, R. (2007). Social class and criminality among young people: A study considering the effects of school achievement as a mediating factor on the basis of Swedish register and self-report data. Journal of Scandinavian Studies in Criminology and Crime Prevention, 8(2), 210-233.

Sari, M. (2007). The effect of hidden curriculum on gaining democratic values: a qualitative study in two elemantary schools having low and high quality of school life (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Cukurova Universitesi, Adana.

Seferoglu, S. S. (2001). Sinif Ogretmenlerinin Kendi Mesleki Gelisimleriyle İlgili Gorusleri, Beklentileri ve Onerileri. Milli Egitim Dergisi, 149, 12-18.

Semlak, J. L., & Pearson, J. C. (2008). Through the years: An examination of instructor age and misbehavior on perceived teacher credibility. Communication Research Reports, 25(1), 76-85.

Sharkey, J. D., You, S., & Schnoebelen, K. (2008). Relations among school assets, individual resilience, and student engagement for youth grouped by level of family functioning. Psychology in the Schools, 45(5), 402-418.

Shernoff, D. J., Kelly, S., Tonks, S. M., Anderson, B., Cavanagh, R. F., Sinha, S., & Abdi, B. (2016). Student engagement as a function of environmental complexity in high school classrooms.Learning and Instruction,43, 52-60.

Silins, H., & Mulford, B. (2004). Schools as learning organisations: Effects on Teacher Leadership and Student Outcomes. School effectiveness and School improvement, 15(3-4), 443-466.

Simons-Morton, B. G., Crump, A. D., Haynie, D. L., & Saylor, K. E. (1999). Student-school bonding and adolescent problem behavior. Health Education Research, 14(1), 99-107.

Skinner, E., Furrer, C., Marchand, G., & Kindermann, T. (2008). Engagement and disaffection in the classroom: Part of a larger motivational dynamic? Journal of Educational Psychology, 100(4), 765-781.

Sweetland, S. R., & Hoy, W. K. (2000). School characteristics and educational outcomes: Toward an organizational model of student achievement in middle schools. Educational Administration Quarterly, 36(5), 703-729.

Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2013). Using Multivariate Statistics (6th ed.). Boston: Pearson.

TDK. (2011). Turkce Sozluk. Ankara: Turk Dil Kurumu Yayinlari.

Tsang, E. W. (2017). How the concept of organizational unlearning contributes to studies of learning organizations: a personal reflection. The Learning Organization, 24(1), 39-48.

Turkoglu, G. (2012). İlkogretim okulu ogrencilerinin okul yasam kalitesine iliskin algilari (Bursa ili Yildirim ilcesi ornegi) (Unpublished Master’s thesis). Akdeniz Universitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitusu, Antalya.

Upadyaya, K., & Salmela-Aro, K. (2013). Development of school engagement in association with academic success and well-being in varying social contexts. European Psychologist, 18(2), 136-147.

Valentine, J. W., & Prater, M. (2011). Instructional, transformational, and managerial leadership and student achievement: high school principals make a difference. NASSP Bulletin, 95(1), 5-30.

Wahome, T.J. (2003). Student perceptions of factors that promote resiliency in high schools. Unpublished doctorate thesis, University of California.

Wang, M. T., Willett, J. B., & Eccles, J. S. (2011). The assessment of school engagement: Examining dimensionality and measurement invariance by gender and race/ethnicity. Journal of School Psychology, 49(4), 465-480.

Welsh, W. N. (2000). The Effects of School Climate on School Disorder. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 567(88), 86-107.

Wolf, F. M., Chandler, T. A., & Spies, C. J. (2001). A Cross Legged Panel Analysis Of Quality Of School Life And Achievement Responsibility. Journal of Educational Research, 74(5), 363-368.

Xin, M. (2003). Sense of Belonging to School: Can Schools Make a Difference? The Journal of Educational Research, 96(6), 340-349.

Yilmaz, K., & Altinkurt, Y. (2013). Adaptation of Organizational Climate Scale into Turkish: The Validity and Reliability Study. Trakya University Journal of Education, 3(1), 1-11.

Zendarski, N., Sciberras, E., Mensah, F., & Hiscock, H. (2017). Early high school engagement in students with attention/deficit hyperactivity disorder.British Journal of Educational Psychology, 87(2), 127-145.



► New issue coming soon! (Volume 13 Issue 1, 2024)

Call for Papers

UNIBULLETIN is calling for submissions. Authors are invited to submit papers from the all fields of the Education (General) and Social Sciences (General) in the international context. All submissions should be presented only in English.