Volume 12 Issue 2 (2023)

Classroom Climate in Early Childhood Education: A Conceptual Framework for Effective Classroom Management

pp. 55-82  |  Published Online: December 2023  |  DOI: 10.22521/unibulletin.2023.122.3

Nurcihan Aslan


Background/purpose – The purpose of this article is to present a conceptual framework for effective classroom management by discussing the importance of classroom climate in early childhood education.

Materials/methods – This review article provides a brief literature review on classroom climate in early childhood education.

Practical implications – This article has the potential to inspire both researchers and teachers regarding future research perspectives of classroom climate in early childhood education. From this perspective, the concept of classroom climate in child education was comprehensively examined and implications for researchers and practitioners put forward.

Conclusion – It is important to create a positive classroom climate in preschool education institutions for children who experience a secondary emotional attachment model after their parents during the preschool period. In this context, in addition to a child’s relationship with their classroom teacher during their initial school experience, the child’s communication with their peers and friends, as well as positive interactions with the school’s administrator, staff, and service personnel, if any, should also be taken into consideration.

Keywords: preschool education, classroom climate, classroom management, early childhood education


Aydin, D. G., & Karabay, Ş. O. (2020). Improvement of classroom management skills of teachers leads to creating positive classroom climate. International Journal of Educational Research Review, 5(1), 10-25. https://doi.org/10.24331/ijere.646832

Barr, J. J. (2016). Developing a Positive Classroom Climate. IDEA Paper# 61. IDEA Center. https://www.ideaedu.org/idea_papers/developing-a-positive-classroom-climate/

Bizarro, N., Luego, R., & Carvalho, J. L. (2018). Development of basic spatial notions through work with educational robotics in the early childhood education classroom and analysis of qualitative data with WebQDA software. In A. P. Costa, L. P. Costa, & A. Moreira (Eds.), World conference on qualitative research (pp. 22-33). Springer.

Bretherton, I., & Waters, E. (Eds.). (1985). Growing points of attachment theory and research. University of Chicago Press.

Brophy-Herb, H. E., Lee, R. E., Nievar, M. A., & Stollak, G. (2007). Preschoolers’ social competence: Relations to family characteristics, teacher behaviors and classroom climate. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology28(2), 134-148. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appdev.2006.12.004

Curby, T. W., LoCasale-Crouch, J., Konold, T. R., Pianta, R. C., Howes, C., Burchinal, M., Bryant, D., Clifford, R., Early, D., & Barbarin, O. (2009). The relations of observed pre-K classroom quality profiles to children’s achievement and social competence. Early Education and Development, 20(2), 346-372. https://doi.org/10.1080/10409280802581284

Darling-Hammond, L., & Cook-Harvey, C. M. (2018). Educating the Whole Child: Improving School Climate to Support Student Success. Learning Policy Institute. https://learningpolicyinstitute.org/product/educating-whole-child-report

Fuhs, M. W., Farran, D. C., & Nesbitt, K. T. (2013). Preschool classroom processes as predictors of children’s cognitive self-regulation skills development. School Psychology Quarterly, 28(4), 347-359. https://psycnet.apa.org/doi/10.1037/spq0000031

Gillen, A., Wright, A., & Spink, L. (2011). Student perceptions of a positive climate for learning: a case study. Educational Psychology in Practice, 27(1), 65-82. https://doi.org/10.1080/02667363.2011.549355

Gillies, R. M. (2003). Structuring cooperative group work in classrooms. International Journal of Educational Research, 39(1-2), 35-49. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0883-0355(03)00072-7

Gómez, C. J., Rodríguez-Medina, J., Miralles-Martínez, P., & López-Facal, R. (2021). Motivation and perceived learning of secondary education history students. Analysis of a Programme on initial teacher training. Frontiers in Psychology, 12, Article 661780. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.661780

Groves, M. M., Sawyers, J. K., & Moran, J. D., III. (1987). Reward and ideational fluency in preschool children. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 2(4), 335-340. https://doi.org/10.1016/0885-2006(87)90019-6

Howes, C., Phillipsen, L. C., & Peisner-Feinberg, E. (2000). The consistency of perceived teacher–child relationships between preschool and kindergarten. Journal of School Psychology, 38(2), 113-132. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-4405(99)00044-8

Hune, J. B., & Nelson, C. M. (2002). Effects of teaching a problem-solving strategy on preschool children with problem behavior. Behavioral Disorders, 27(3), 185-207. https://doi.org/10.1177/019874290202700302

Johnson, L. J., Gallagher, R. J., Cook, M., & Wong, P. (1995). Critical skills for kindergarten: Perceptions from kindergarten teachers. Journal of Early Intervention, 19(4), 315-327. https://doi.org/10.1177/105381519501900406

Jones, R. D. (2008). Strengthening student engagement. International Center for Leadership in Education.

Kapa, R., & Gimbert, B. (2018). Job satisfaction, school rule enforcement, and teacher victimization. School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 29(1), 150-168. https://doi.org/10.1080/09243453.2017.1395747

Khalfaoui, A., García-Carrión, R., & Villardón-Gallego, L. (2021). A systematic review of the literature on aspects affecting positive classroom climate in multicultural early childhood education. Early Childhood Education Journal, 49(1), 71-81. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10643-020-01054-4

Liao, Y., Wang, L., Luo, T., Wu, S., Wu, Z., Chen, J., Pan, C., Wang, Y., Liu, Y., Luo, Q., Guo, X., Xie, L., Zhou, J., Chen., W., & Tang, J. (2020). Brief mindfulness-based intervention of ‘STOP (Stop, Take a Breath, Observe, Proceed) touching your face’: a study protocol of a randomised controlled trial. BMJ Open, 10(11), Article e041364. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-041364

Lilian, G. K., Paul, O. A., Ciumuari, G. J., & Juliet, M. N. (2019). Social studies curriculum and cooperation among preschool learners in Nairobi County, Kenya: Addressing effectiveness of instructional methods. American Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities, 4(1), 86-97. https://doi.org/10.20448/801.41.86.97

Logue, M. E. (2007). Early childhood learning standards: Tools for promoting social and academic success in kindergarten. Children & Schools, 29(1), 35-43. https://doi.org/10.1093/cs/29.1.35

Lösel, F., & Bender, D. (2012). Child social skills training in the prevention of antisocial development and crime. In B. C. Welsh & D. P. Farrington (Eds.), Handbook of crime prevention (pp. 102-129). Oxford University Press.

Msane, J., Murimo, B. M., & Chani, T. (2020). Students’ perception of the effect of cognitive factors in determining success in computer programming: a case study. International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications, 11(7), 185-190. https://dx.doi.org/10.14569/IJACSA.2020.0110724

Neel, R. S., Jenkins, Z. N., & Meadows, N. (1990). Social problem-solving behaviors and aggression in young children: A descriptive observational study. Behavioral Disorders, 16(1), 39-51. https://doi.org/10.1177/019874299001600106

Nurani, Y., Hartati, S., Utami, A. D., & Pratiwi, N. (2020). Effective Communication-Based Teaching Skill for Early Childhood Education Students. International Journal of Higher Education, 9(1), 153-158. https://doi.org/10.5430/ijhe.v9n1p153

Palermo, F., Hanish, L. D., Martin, C. L., Fabes, R. A., & Reiser, M. (2007). Preschoolers’ academic readiness: What role does the teacher–child relationship play? Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 22(4), 407-422. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2007.04.002

Peisner-Feinberg, E. S., & Burchinal, M. R. (1997). Relations between preschool children’s child-care experiences and concurrent development: The Cost, Quality, and Outcomes Study. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly (1982-), 451-477.

Pianta, R. C., La Paro, K. M., Payne, C., Cox, M. J., & Bradley, R. (2002). The relation of kindergarten classroom environment to teacher, family, and school characteristics and child outcomes. The Elementary School Journal, 102(3), 225-238. https://doi.org/10.1086/499701

Pianta, R. C., Nimetz, S. L., & Bennett, E. (1997). Mother-child relationships, teacher-child relationships, and school outcomes in preschool and kindergarten. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 12(3), 263-280. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0885-2006(97)90003-X

Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2020). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation from a self-determination theory perspective: Definitions, theory, practices, and future directions. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 61, Article 101860. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2020.101860

Schindler, H. S., Kholoptseva, J., Oh, S. S., Yoshikawa, H., Duncan, G. J., Magnuson, K. A., & Shonkoff, J. P. (2015). Maximizing the potential of early childhood education to prevent externalizing behavior problems: A meta-analysis. Journal of School Psychology, 53(3), 243-263. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsp.2015.04.001

Shapiro, S. (1993). Strategies that create a positive classroom climate. The Clearing House, 67(2), 91-97. https://doi.org/10.1080/00098655.1993.9956031

Shewark, E. A., Zinsser, K. M., & Denham, S. A. (2018). Teachers’ perspectives on the consequences of managing classroom climate. Child & Youth Care Forum, 47, 787-802. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10566-018-9461-2

Sink, C. A., & Spencer, L. R. (2005). My Class Inventory-Short Form as an accountability tool for elementary school counselors to measure classroom climate. Professional School Counseling, 9(1). https://doi.org/10.1177/2156759X0500900112

Stipek, D. (2002). Good instruction is motivating. In A. Wigfield & J. S. Eccles (Eds.), Development of achievement motivation (pp. 309-332). Academic. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-012750053-9/50014-0

Tarım, K. (2015). Effects of cooperative group work activities on pre-school children’s pattern recognition skills. Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice15(6), 1597-1604. https://jestp.com/article-detail/?id=618

Tegano, D. W. (1991). Creativity in Early Childhood Classrooms. NEA Early Childhood Education Series. National Education Association.

Vijayan, P., Chakravarthi, S., & Philips, J. A. (2016). The role of teachers’ behaviour and strategies in managing a classroom environment. International Journal of Social Science and Humanity, 6(3), 208-215. https://doi.org/10.7763/IJSSH.2016.V6.644

Viñuela, Y., & de Caso Fuertes, A. M. (2023). Improving motivation in pre-school education through the use of project-based learning and cooperative learning. Frontiers in Education, 7, Article 1094004. https://doi.org/10.3389/feduc.2022.1094004

Wenglinsky, H. (2002). How Schools Matter: The Link Between Teacher Classroom Practices and Student Academic Performance. Education Policy Analysis Archive, 10, Article 12. https://doi.org/10.14507/epaa.v10n12.2002



► New issue coming soon! (Volume 13 Issue 1, 2024)

Call for Papers

UNIBULLETIN is calling for submissions. Authors are invited to submit papers from the all fields of the Education (General) and Social Sciences (General) in the international context. All submissions should be presented only in English.